SWBAT: Identify the Cold War Hot Spots Around the World Do Now: a) Bridge the Gulch Political Cartoon Analysis
Do Now: Bridge the Gulch Political Cartoon
Poster Board Group Activity The class will be divided into six groups. Each group will be assigned a reading about one of the Cold War “Hot Spots” • Berlin Blockade • Chinese Civil War • Korean War • Congo Civil War • Bay of Pigs Invasion • Cuban Missile Crisis.
Poster Board Group Activity Each group will have to examine the document and identify by highlighting or underlining: • The time and place of the incident • The nations involved • The causes • The results • Evaluate how the conflict showed the Cold War becoming “hot” between the US and USSR.
Poster Board Group Activity Complete your own charts using the text based evidence the group highlighted and discussed from the text. Construct a poster board with the important information contained in the document and create a visual representing the Cold War conflict. Each group will then present and the class will complete their charts based on the groups’ presentation of their text based evidence.
Berlin • West Berlin, was an outpost of Western democracy and economic success deep within the communist zone – like a capitalist island within communist East Germany • The Berlin Blockade was an attempt to starve West Berlin into submitting [giving up] to the communists • The Allied [western powers] airlift signalled the West’s determination to use all resources to defend Berlin. It was feld by both sides that Berlin could act as the trigger for general war between capitalist and communist countries
Communists Take China- 1949 • Chinese Civil War (28 -38) – Nationalists: Chiang Kai-shek – Communists: Mao Zedong • Unite to fight WW 2… temporary • People’s Republic of China – Mao’s Communists – Chou En-lai - Premier • Republic of China – aka Taiwan (Formosa) – Chiang’s Nationalists – Recognized as official govt (US & UN)
The Korean War • Japan occupied Korea from 1910 -1945 • Post WW 2, Korea divided at 38 th Parallel – USSR in North – US in South • Goal: reunification
UN in North Korea • USSR refuses UN-sponsored elections… – Republic of Korea in Seoul, S. Korea (Pres. Syngman Rhee) – Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in Pyongyang, N. Korea (Kim Il Sung) • Occupying troops withdrew 48 & 49.
Open Hostilities • June to Sept- North captures Seoul, most S. Korea! • Sept to Oct – Mac pushes back…to Chinese border! • Nov to Jan 51 - Chinese get involved to stop US from entering China… push back to 38 th parallel
Butting Heads • Mac. Arthur : Invade China! Truman: No! • Mac. Arthur appeals to media, criticizes Truman • Mac fired April 11, 1951.
Armistice • 1951 -1953 stuck at 38 th…nothing gained, much lost (54 k dead, $67 b) • Soviets suggest ceasefire – 38 th Parallel – Demilitarized Zone – Exchange of POW’s • NK/UN signed July 1953 – No official NK/SK Treaty!
Congo Civil War The Congo Civil War, or Congo Crisis, was a complex political tumult that began just days following Belgium’s granting of Congolese independence in 1960. Lasting four years, the associated violence claimed an estimated 100, 000 lives including the nation's first Prime Minister, Patrice Lumumba, and UN Secretary Dag Hammarskjöld, who was killed in a plane crash as he attempted to mediate the crisis. Escalating with the secession of the southernmost province of Katanga, the conflict concluded five years later with a united Congo emerging under the dictatorship of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu.
Congo Civil War The conflict also became the site of a dangerous Cold War “proxy” contest between western powers led by the United States and the Soviet Union-led Communist bloc. Under pressure from western nations and in exchange for UN support, President Kasavubu purged his government of radical elements including Prime Minister Lumumba. The ultra-nationalist Lumumba, though supported by the Congolese, was viewed by Western business leaders as an obstacle to their continued investments in Congolese diamond mines. Fearing Lumumba was secretly a Communist, the United States was particularly adamant about his removal from power.
Impact of Korea • UN gains authority • Hostilities in Korea continue • N. Korea still communist • US commit to containment • US precedent for future intervention (Vietnam) • US rejects Dem Party, elects Republican Ike • Military-industrial complex
The Bay of Pigs Background • Summer 1960, President Eisenhower gave CIA permission to train Cuban exiles in an invasion of Cuba • Kennedy learned of the plan 9 days after being sworn in as President
CIA Encourages Kennedy • On April 17, 1961, President Kennedy on advice from CIA officials agrees to the Bay of Pigs invasion • US Air Force had provided support two days prior to the land invasion • Failed to knockout Cuban Air Force • The 1, 400 Cuban exiles faced 20, 000 Cuban soldiers • The mission failed! Kennedy publicly accepted the blame but privately was furious with the CIA!
The Cuban Missile Crisis • Oct. 16, 1962 photos reveal Soviets building missile sights in Cuba • On October 22, 1962, President Kennedy delivers a speech to the US about the presence of nuclear missiles and his plan to remove them. Any hostile action from Cuba would require the US to attack Soviet Union. • Options: negotiate with Khrushchev, invade Cuba, blockade Cuba, bomb missile sights
Crisis Avoided • For 6 tense days Soviet ships headed towards Cuba. • The US amassed 200, 000 soldiers in Florida and the US Navy blockaded Cuba so that no ship could get within 500 miles of it. • The Soviet ships halted suddenly to avoid confrontation with the US. • Khrushchev agrees to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for not invading Cuba
Kennedy’s Map of Cuba
On Demand Task Create your own Cold War Political Cartoon based upon one of the Cold War conflicts discussed in class today. You must choose a Cold War conflict that you did not present on. Be sure to include some of the following elements of political cartoons: • Labels: Cartoonists often identify or name certain things in their cartoons so that it is apparent what the symbols represent. • Symbolism: Cartoonists may use simple objects to represent larger ideas or concepts. • Analogy: Cartoonists may compare a simple image or concept to a more complex situation, in order to help the viewer understand the more complex situation in a different way.