SUSTAINING WILD SPECIES Species Conservation Factors affecting Biodiversity

  • Slides: 18
Download presentation
SUSTAINING WILD SPECIES Species Conservation

SUSTAINING WILD SPECIES Species Conservation

Factors affecting Biodiversity • Increases biodiversity: • Physically diverse habitat • Moderate environmental disturbance

Factors affecting Biodiversity • Increases biodiversity: • Physically diverse habitat • Moderate environmental disturbance • Small variations in environmental conditions • Middle stages of succession • Evolution • Decreases biodiversity: • Environmental stress • Large environmental disturbance • Extreme environmental conditions • Severe limitations of resources • Introduction of exotics • Habitat loss

 • How have human activities affected global biodiversity? • • • Taken over

• How have human activities affected global biodiversity? • • • Taken over or degraded 40 -50% of earth’s surface Waste or destroy 27% of total net primary productivity Losing our wetlands and deforestation Coral reefs Threatening many organisms with premature extinction

BIODIVERSITY HOT SPOTS

BIODIVERSITY HOT SPOTS

Goals for reducing loss of biodiversity: • To prevent premature extinction of species •

Goals for reducing loss of biodiversity: • To prevent premature extinction of species • To preserve and restore ecosystems and aquatic systems that provide habitats and resources for species.

HOW DO BIOLOGISTS EXTIMATE EXTINCTION RATES?

HOW DO BIOLOGISTS EXTIMATE EXTINCTION RATES?

HOW DO BIOLOGISTS EXTIMATE EXTINCTION RATES? SPECIES -AREA RELATIONSHIP Scientists observe: • # species

HOW DO BIOLOGISTS EXTIMATE EXTINCTION RATES? SPECIES -AREA RELATIONSHIP Scientists observe: • # species increases with area • assume that an average of 90% loss of habitat causes the extinction of about 50% of the species living in that habitat • but destruction of 10% of the habitat can wipe out all of the remaining species if they cannot move!

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIES THAT ARE PRONE TO EXTINCTION:

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIES THAT ARE PRONE TO EXTINCTION:

What can be done about invasive species? • Identify characteristics of successful invaders •

What can be done about invasive species? • Identify characteristics of successful invaders • Do better inspections • Identify invader species and pass laws • Require ships to discharge ballast waters in the ocean not in port

ROLE OF LOSS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY • LIMITS ABILITY TO SURVIVE • HOW LOST:

ROLE OF LOSS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY • LIMITS ABILITY TO SURVIVE • HOW LOST: • FOUNDER EFFECT - SUCH A SMALL NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS THEY CANNOT SUSTAIN THE POPULATION • INBREEDING • DEMOGRAPHIC BOTTLENECK - TOO FEW INDIVIDUALS TO PERPETUATE POPULATION • GENETIC DRIFT - UNEQUAL REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS -SOME INDIVIDUALS BREED AND DOMINATE THE GENE POOL

Protecting Wild Species LAWS AND TREATIES

Protecting Wild Species LAWS AND TREATIES

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES • CITES - CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES - 1975

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES • CITES - CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES - 1975 • 152 countries • 800 species can not be commercially traded live or as products • 29, 000 species monitored and regulated because they are threatened • limited enforcement • small fines • much goes on in countries who did not sign • CONVENTION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY (CBD) • 172 countries - not U. S. • help protect global biodiversity • very comprehensive treaty

NATIONAL LAWS • LACEY ACT - 1900 - prohibits transporting live or dead wildlife

NATIONAL LAWS • LACEY ACT - 1900 - prohibits transporting live or dead wildlife products across state borders without a federal permit • ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT (ESA) 1975 - cannot import or trade in any product from endangered or threatened species except for scientific purposes • must be on the list • must have a plan for recovery

WHAT ELSE CAN BE DONE? • ENCOURAGE PRIVATE LANDOWNERS • habitat conservation plans •

WHAT ELSE CAN BE DONE? • ENCOURAGE PRIVATE LANDOWNERS • habitat conservation plans • safe harbor agreements - restore habitats • candidate conservation agreements • WILDLIFE REFUGES - MOST ARE WETLANDS • GENE BANKS, BOTANICAL GARDENS AND FARMS • seed banks • kew gardens

IMPORTANCE OF ZOOS • USE TWO TECHNIQUES: • egg pulling - collect eggs and

IMPORTANCE OF ZOOS • USE TWO TECHNIQUES: • egg pulling - collect eggs and hatch in zoos • captive breeding reintroduce into the wild • artificial insemination • embryo transfer • incubators • cross fostering with similar species • use databases to match individuals for mating

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT • MANIPULATING WILDLIFE POPULATIONS (ESPECIALLY GAME ANIMALS) AND THEIR HABITATS FOR THEIR

WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT • MANIPULATING WILDLIFE POPULATIONS (ESPECIALLY GAME ANIMALS) AND THEIR HABITATS FOR THEIR WELFARE AND HUMAN BENEFITS • hunting regulations • harvest quotas • population management plans • improving habitats • using international treaties to protect migrating game species