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Sustainable Development Initiative in the Arab Region Arab Experience in implementation ﻭﺭﺷﺔ ﺗﺮﺳﻴﺦ ﻣﻔﻬﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺪﺍﻣﺔ ﺍﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ١٦ -١٥ ، ﺍﻟﺪﻭﺣﺔ 2014 Ibrahim Abdel Gelil Professor Emeritus, Arabian Gulf University
What is SDIAR? ● A framework for implementation of SD programs in the Arab countries, Arab regional organizations and international organizations. ● Addressing challenges to SD in the region. ● Affirming commitment to implement: – Agenda 21 – The Millennium Declaration, and – The outcomes of the WSSD
SDIAR: Mechanism for implementation and monitoring ● Joint secretariat: – – technical secretariat of CAMRE, secretariat of the Arab Economic & Social Council UNEP/ROWA ESCWA ● Follow up by JCEDAR and CAMRE ● Periodic progress reports submitted to the Arab Summit through the Arab Economic and Social Council ● Three progress reports in 2008, 2009, and 2011.
SDIAR: Priority Areas ● Peace and security ● Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development ● Population and Health ● Education, Awareness, Scientific Research, & Technology Transfer ● Resources Management ● Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) ● Production and Consumption ● Globalization, Trade and Investment
Peace and Security ● It has been one of the major obstacles to achieve SD in the Arab region ● Arab unilateral and regional efforts to realize peace and security: ● ● ● Post-crisis environmental assessments in Gaza Strip, Lebanon, and Sudan by UNEP Support for the Palestinian people in their just struggle to have their independent state with Al Quds as its capital. Support of the Syrian people to free their occupied Golan Heights. Support for the Iraqi people to build their democratic institutions. Support for the Somali people to establish a national government and territorial integrity. Call for turning the Middle East into a zone free of weapons of mass destruction including nuclear weapons.
Regional Institutional Framework for SD ● LAS regional approach to SD: – The Joint secretariat: • • technical secretariat of CAMRE technical secretariat of the Arab ECOSOC the UNEP/ROWA and UNESCWA. – The JCEDAR, as advisory committee to CAMRE. ● Regional organizations (UNESCWA, UNEP/ROWA, ROPME, PERSGA, MAP) ● Regional declarations
Arab Initiatives and Declarations Source: UNESCWA
Adopted Regional Strategies The strategic plan to develop education in the Arab world Arab regional strategy on (SCP) The Arab guideline to improve electricity efficiency and its rationalization at the end user The Arab Renewable Energy Strategy (2010 -2030) The Arab Action plan to deal with climate change The Arab Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (ASDRR) The Arab strategy for water security. The Arab strategy for sustainable agriculture development
National Governance of SD ● The National Institutional Framework – – – – Autonomous Ministries of the Environment (Lebanon, Jordan, Qatar) Joint ministries ( Algeria, Sudan, UAE, Tunisia) Environmental Agencies (Kuwait, KSA, Egypt, UAE) Environmental directorates in line ministries (KSA) Environmental Councils/ committees (Bahrain, Syria, Kuwait, Yemen) National Councils/committees for SD (mostly ad hoc) National development strategies (Bahrain 2030, Qatar 2030, KSA development strategy 2025) ● Environmental legislations (guidelines of environmental laws by CAMRE) ● Ratifications and implementation of MEAs ● Role of bilateral, multilateral donors and Arab Funds in funding SD projects in the region
Tunisia’s National Commission for SD (CNDD) ● Established in 1993 ● The aim is to reconcile economic and social development with the preservation of natural resources. ● Composed of the following members: – – – – Prime Minister of Tunisia (Chairman) Minister of the Environment and Sustainable Development (Vice-Chairman) Other concerned ministers Representatives from Parliament Representatives from professional organizations and trade unions Representatives from the National Women’s Union Representatives from NGOs active in the areas of environment and development National Environmental Protection Agency (Rapporteur) ● Assisted by a Technical Committee for Sustainable Development, which is chaired by the Minister of Environment and Sustainable Development
Key elements of the Tunisian approach ● Participatory development of a National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS), in the form of Tunisia’s National Agenda 21 ● Creation of a National Commission for Sustainable Development (NCSD) ● Establishment of a Technical Committee to support the work of the NCSD ● Incorporation of key elements of the NSDS into the country’s 5 -year Development Plans, and into associated sectoral plans ● Identification of priority measures and concrete actions for implementation of NSDS ● Development and implementation of a Local Agenda 21 programme driven by the NSDS; ● Annual monitoring of the NSDS, using indicators covering economic, social and environmental dimensions; ● Responding to monitoring results through actions to revise implementation measures. Source: UNESCWA
Current Gaps in Governance ● The current setup proved to be not effective in addressing the three pillars of SD. ● Environmental institutions have had limited capacity and influence to address wide range of SD issues. ● Weak implementation and lack of monitoring and evaluation (Algeria and Tunisia) ● Centralized governance, weak policy coherence and fragmentation ● Limited and constrained roles of NGOs and media in achieving SD (AFED and RAED at the regional level)
Poverty Alleviation ● Sharp disparity between high income GCC and Arab LDCs, Iraq and Palestine ● The region is on track to halve population living under $1. 25/day by 2015 ● Ratio of male/female youth unemployment rate is 2: 3 ● Poverty is concentrated in rural areas ● Unemployment is a major development challenge (Average rate is 12 % of the labor force (2005 -2008)) ● The region is lagging behind in the target of halving hunger (Somalia, Yemen, and Gaza strip are suffering from food poverty)
Population and Health: Under 5 MR (MDG 4)
Population and Health ● Disparity between GCC and the Arab LCDs. ● The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is low. ● Malaria is still endemic in four LDCs, and limited geographic area in Iraq and border of Saudi Arabia and Yemen. ● Djibouti, Mauritania and Sudan remain the region’s biggest challenge concerning TB reduction. ● Effects of political instability and conflicts on water and sanitation infrastructure (Somalia, Iraq, and Gazza)
Education: The strategic plan to develop education in the Arab world (Damascus Summit 2008) ü More than 60 million people are illiterates ü 9 million school-age children are out of school
Selected Indicators of R&D in the Arab Countries Source: UNESCO, 2010 17
World Share of Scientific Publications 1. 4 Arab States 1. 8 Turkey 2. 7 Brazil 3. 3 Republic of Korea 2008 2002 7. 2 UK 7. 7 Germany 27. 7 US 0 5 10 Source: UNESCO, 2010 15 20 25 30 35 18
GERD/GDP Ratio (2007) Source: UNESCO, 2010 19
Highlights of S&T in the Arab Countries ● Many Arab Countries still have no National Policies or strategies for S&T. ● Qatar’s initiatives in S&T and education. ● The UAE is the highest ranking in terms of capacity for innovation. ● Science Parks in Bahrain, Morocco, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and UAE. ● Jordan’s law to compel Universities to allocate 5% of their budgets to R&D. ● Low private sector spending in R&D (Tunisia is ranked highest) ● Lack of/ or weak national and regional collaborations.
Environmental Information Systems. ● A working group on indicators for sustainable development. ● Adopted group of SD indicators (KSA, Jordan, Tunisia, Qatar, Egypt. ● A working group on Arab Network for environmental information. ● Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative (AGEDI). ● Three GEO Collaborating Centers ACSAD, AGU, CEDARE. ● Arab Region: Atlas of our Changing Environment (UNEP). ● West Asia GEO Data Portal (UNEP/ROWA). ● First Arab Environment Outlook Report. ● State of the environment report (Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia) ● Kuwait Environmental portal
Protection of Biodiversity and Biosafety ● Biodiversity conservation has been deeply rooted in Arab cultures (Hema system) ● The Region has over 150 protected terrestrial areas, 6 biosphere reserves, and 20 protected wetlands. ● Programs for the captive breeding of Arabian Oryx, Houbara bustard and some gazelle species (UAE) ● Most Arab countries are parties to the CBD, CITES, CMS, and RAMSAR
Protection of Biodiversity and Biosafety ● The restoration of the Mesopotamian marshlands of Iraq (UNEP) ● The preservation of local wheat varieties in Jordan and Syria. ● ACSAD’s network of sub-regional genetic banks in Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. ● Policy framework for biosafety is still a challenge in most Arab Countries.
Air Quality Management ● Policies and measures to improve air quality include: – – – – Energy Efficiency Renewable energy Air quality standards Vehicle emission standards Air monitoring networks Public awareness Industrial pollution abatement, and Sustainable transport
Air Quality Management/2 ● Phasing out Pb from Gasoline ● Major refineries in the GCC have reduced sulfur contents in petroleum products. ● Reduction of gas flaring (El-Shaheen Field in Qatar). ● Air quality monitoring networks in many countries
Energy for Sustainable Development ● “Arab guideline to improve electricity efficiency and its rationalization at the end use” by LAS ● Pan-Arab RE strategy by LAS (2030) ● Many Arab Countries have announced national targets of EE and RE ● Massive RE and Nuclear energy strategy in KSA (50 GW by 2032) ● MASDAR sustainable energy initiatives in UAE. ● Aggressive RE development in Morocco.
RE Installed Capacity in the Arab Countries 27
Multilateral Environmental Agreements ● Three standing committees were formed: – UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, – Chemical management, and – Biodiversity and desertification. ● Countries are parties to large number of MEAs, burden on institutional capacity. ● The Arab participation in the CDM has been very low. ● Only six Arab countries have participated in the CDM. ● Large CDM potential in the region has not been fully utilized yet.
Registered CDM Projects in the Arab Countries (2013) 29
Production and Consumption ● The Arab 10 YFP SCP was adopted by CAMRE in 2009 ● The Strategy identifies 6 priority areas: – – – energy for sustainable development water resources management, waste management, rural development and eradication of poverty, education and sustainable lifestyles, and sustainable tourism.
Challenges for Sustainable Development ● GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ● CONFLICTS, TERRORISM AND REGIONAL SECURITY ● CLIMATE CHANGE ● WATER SCARCITY, POOR LAND RESOURCES, AND FOOD SECURITY ● EDUCATION, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, ● UNEMPLOYMENT ● RAPID POLPULATION GROWTH ● POVERTY and SOCIAL INEQUALITY
The SDIAR: GAPS, needs to update ● Has no additional funding for implementation ● Meant to use the available resources in: – – – the Arab countries the relevant Arab regional and international organizations, and the Arab regional and international financial institutions ● Has no clear time frame ● Has no clear measurable goals ● No harmonized reporting format ● No indicators to monitor progress (nationally, and regionally)
Thank You Ibrahim Abdel Gelil [email protected] com