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Surveys and Questionnaires Online Tutorial
What is a survey? • A survey is a method of gathering information from a number of individuals, known as a sample, in order to learn something about the larger population from which the sample is drawn. • Face-to-face surveys • Telephone surveys • Mail (postal) surveys • Web-based surveys
What is a questionnaire? Instrument Planning Design Pilot/Test Final design/modification Data collection Analysis and reporting
Initial Planning and design of the questionnaire • The value of the survey • Population • Sampling frame
Designing the questionnaire The researcher’s task: link research questions and survey questions The respondent’s task: understand the questions and reply! So? Make sure that possible fixed responses are : accurate, exhaustive, and mutually exclusive!
Check list to avoid problems in question wording 1. Keep the language simple. 2. Keep questions short. 3. Avoid double-barrelled questions. 4. Avoid leading questions. 5. Avoid questions in the negative.
Check list to avoid problems in question wording 6. Remove ambiguity. 7. Avoid creating opinions. 8. Avoid unnecessary details. 9. Ask questions only where respondents are likely to have the knowledge needed to answer.
General Format • Cover Letter • Questionnaire Introduction • Instructions • Grouping Questions • Demographic Questions • Other Comments • Thank You • What to do with the questionnaire
Pre-testing • Validity Does the instrument measure what you want it to measure? An instrument that is valid for a specific situation or audience may not be valid in a different situation or for a different audience. • Reliability Does the instrument consistently give the same results with the same group of people under the same condition? Other words that are used synonymously with reliability are accuracy, dependability, consistency, and stability.
Final design and planning