Survey of Selected Western Classics Unit 10 11

  • Slides: 61
Download presentation
Survey of Selected Western Classics Unit 10 -11: 西洋戲劇: Oscar Wilde, “The Importance of

Survey of Selected Western Classics Unit 10 -11: 西洋戲劇: Oscar Wilde, “The Importance of Being Earnest” 授課教師 : 國立臺灣大學外國語文學系 王寶祥 副教授 本課程指定教材為: Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde. New York: Vintage Books, 1988. Barnet, Sylvan, et al (eds). Types of Drama: Plays and Contexts. 8 th ed. New York: Longman, 2001. 請讀者自行準備。 【本著作除另有註明外,採取創CC「姓名標示- 非商業性-相同方式分享」台灣 3. 0版授權釋出】 1

Oscar Wilde Oct 16, 1854 -1900 • Born in Dublin, Ireland • Anglo-Irish stock

Oscar Wilde Oct 16, 1854 -1900 • Born in Dublin, Ireland • Anglo-Irish stock • Mother a feminist and Irish nationalist “Speranza of the Nation” • Father Sir William Wilde a surgeon 2

Residence in fashionable district of Dublin 3

Residence in fashionable district of Dublin 3

Trinity College, Dublin • • • Read classics Scholarship to Oxford Hellenism: 1. Reaction

Trinity College, Dublin • • • Read classics Scholarship to Oxford Hellenism: 1. Reaction against industrialism 2. Religious revival of Anglicanism (Cardinal Newman) • 3. Secular revival of Greek cult of physical beauty and youth (Gladstone to Pater) 4

Oxford education, 1878 • Magdalen College, Oxford • “Oxonian” • Studied with John Ruskin

Oxford education, 1878 • Magdalen College, Oxford • “Oxonian” • Studied with John Ruskin and Walter Pater • Tutor-pupil homoeroticism • Boy worship • 1879 graduated with honors, prize for first poem Ravenna • 1881 Poems published 5

Victorianism • • Reign of Queen Victoria 1837 -1901 Pan-European doctrine of Empire scientific

Victorianism • • Reign of Queen Victoria 1837 -1901 Pan-European doctrine of Empire scientific materialism moral conservatism utilitarianism colonialism and empire woman as “angel of the house” rise of sexuality studies 6

Dandyism: theatrical to the core • Baudelaire on Beau Brummel and modern flaneur as

Dandyism: theatrical to the core • Baudelaire on Beau Brummel and modern flaneur as dandy artiste • Dandyism: excessive focus on fashion and appearance • aestheticism vs. utilatarianism • Aristocratic cult of idleness and frivolity • 20 th century notion of “camp” aesthetics: surface and style, exaggeration and extravagance • You are what you look, how is done over what is done • Dandy as an artist, his creation his life: “dandyism is the assertion of the absolute modernity of beauty” 7

Beau Brummel: the dandiest of them all 8

Beau Brummel: the dandiest of them all 8

Aesthetic dualism • • Beauty over Thought Style over content Surface over depth Personality

Aesthetic dualism • • Beauty over Thought Style over content Surface over depth Personality over functionality • Culture over nature • The ephemeral over the permanent • Sin over virtue • Art over life • Decadence over regeneration • Masquerade over face • Illusion over reality • Lies over truth 9

“Straight” Wilde • • Married with children Wife Constance Lloyd 1883 Children Cyril and

“Straight” Wilde • • Married with children Wife Constance Lloyd 1883 Children Cyril and Vyvyan essay The Soul of Man Under Socialism (1891) an attack on poverty 10

Vera, or The Nihilist • Early play Vera (18791880) nihilism, aristocratic socialism, democracy •

Vera, or The Nihilist • Early play Vera (18791880) nihilism, aristocratic socialism, democracy • Performed in New York in 1882 while Wilde was on his lecture tour 11

The queer Wilde http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki /File: A_Wilde_time_3. jpg 12

The queer Wilde http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki /File: A_Wilde_time_3. jpg 12

Lord Alfred Douglas ( 1870 -1945) • • • Longtime companion Son of Marquess

Lord Alfred Douglas ( 1870 -1945) • • • Longtime companion Son of Marquess Queensberry English translator of Wilde’s Salome Editor and publisher Landed in jail for libel against Winston Churchill • Married with children, homophobic hysteric • “Childe Alfred” by Shaw • Biographer a 20 -year old Oxford student 13

Oscar and Bosie • Played by Stephen Fry and Jude Law in film 14

Oscar and Bosie • Played by Stephen Fry and Jude Law in film 14

Fairy Tales: allegories of selfhood • • • Happy Prince The House of Pomegranates

Fairy Tales: allegories of selfhood • • • Happy Prince The House of Pomegranates The Selfish Giant The Birthday of Infanta “an attempt to mirror modern life in a form remote from reality". 15

1882 US lecture tour • "ambassador" of the aesthetic doctrine • Managed by D’Oyly

1882 US lecture tour • "ambassador" of the aesthetic doctrine • Managed by D’Oyly Carte, producer of comic operas • “I have nothing to declare except my genius” 16

Caricature by Max Beerbohm ca. 1894 • Half brother of director manager Beerbohm Tree

Caricature by Max Beerbohm ca. 1894 • Half brother of director manager Beerbohm Tree 17

Caricatures by Illustrator Alfred Bryan • On Wilde’s first “dramatic failure” in 1883 with

Caricatures by Illustrator Alfred Bryan • On Wilde’s first “dramatic failure” in 1883 with Vera. • Lady Windermere’s fan 18

Criticism: critic as artist • The Decay of Lying (1891): defends art for art’s

Criticism: critic as artist • The Decay of Lying (1891): defends art for art’s sake • Self-reflexivity: “Art never expresses anything but itself” • “Life imitates Art far more than Art imitates Life” • “What the highest Criticism really is, is the record of one’s own soul” rather than history, which is concerned with events • “Lying, the telling of beautiful untrue things, is the proper aim of Art” • The Critic as Artist (1891): favors vita contemplativa over vita activa • Collapsing boundary between art (creative) and criticism (derivative) • Derivativeness/digression as invention • Self-invention as a continued rewriting/constructing/constituting of selfhoods • Criticism as autobiography • Self-invention as diary? (Cicely) • Socratic dialogues best represent conflicted subjectivities 19

The Picture of Dorian Gray 1890 • The only novel • Manifesto of aestheticism

The Picture of Dorian Gray 1890 • The only novel • Manifesto of aestheticism and decadence • androgyny 雌雄同體 • Boy worship • Life imitates art: dynamic of art and life, illusion and reality • Helmut Berger (pic) • 王大閎<<杜連魁的畫像>> 20

Mrs. Pat and Forbes-Robertson • Romeo and Juliet 21

Mrs. Pat and Forbes-Robertson • Romeo and Juliet 21

Salome, 1891 莎樂美 • Wilde as Salome in drag, transvestitism? • Written in French

Salome, 1891 莎樂美 • Wilde as Salome in drag, transvestitism? • Written in French for Sarah Bernhardt • banned by Lord Chamberlain on religious grounds • Opera by Richard Strauss 1905 • Pater aestheticism (Salome) vs. Ruskin asceticism (John the Baptist)? 22

Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892) • • • 少奶奶/ 溫夫人的扇子 First produced play An instant

Lady Windermere’s Fan (1892) • • • 少奶奶/ 溫夫人的扇子 First produced play An instant success Hypocrisy of high society Woman with a past Femme fatale, ingenue, and rake 1916 silent film by Fred Paul 1925 film by Ernst Lubitsch 劉別謙 1949 remake by Otto Preminger The Fan 23

A Good Woman (2004) • Film adaptation of Lady Windermere set in the 1930

A Good Woman (2004) • Film adaptation of Lady Windermere set in the 1930 s Amalfi coast • Helen Hunt • Scarlett Johansson 24

A Woman of No Importance (1893), produced by Beerbohm Tree • Victorian melodrama: binary

A Woman of No Importance (1893), produced by Beerbohm Tree • Victorian melodrama: binary opposition of good and evil • “people love a wicked aristocrat who seduces a virtuous maiden” • A woman with a past • “one can survive everything nowadays, except death, and live down anything except a good reputation” • “One should never take sides in anything, earnestness follows shortly afterwards and the human being becomes a bore” 25

An Ideal Husband (1895) • Unmasking the veneer of Victorian respectability • Lord Goring

An Ideal Husband (1895) • Unmasking the veneer of Victorian respectability • Lord Goring “flawless dandy” as Wilde personified • Lord Chiltern as the “ideal husband” involved in a political scandal • Lady “with a past” blackmails • Social critique: class and politics • Hypocrisy of Victorian morality • 1999 Rupert Everett as Goring /2000 James Wilby as Chiltern 26

The Importance of Being Earnest (1895) • Actor-manager and matinee idol George Alexander as

The Importance of Being Earnest (1895) • Actor-manager and matinee idol George Alexander as Jack • Comedy of manners • Continue and subvert Restoration comedy • Masquerade and mistaken identity • Witticisms and puns • Critique of or complicity with Victorian dualism • City/country, appearance/ reality, fiction/ truth, materialism/ spiritualism, trivial/ serious 27

Classic 1952 film • Dame Edith Evans as Lady Bracknell • Michael Redgrave as

Classic 1952 film • Dame Edith Evans as Lady Bracknell • Michael Redgrave as Jack • John Gielgud in audio version 28

2002 film • Starring Judi Dench, Rupert Everett, Colin Firth, Reese Witherspoon • Cecily

2002 film • Starring Judi Dench, Rupert Everett, Colin Firth, Reese Witherspoon • Cecily as a critic? (“the aim of the true critic is to try and chronicle his own moods”), “impressions” gleaned not from “actual life” from “what Art has touched” • “To give an accurate description of what has never occurred is …an inalienable privilege of any man of parts and culture” --The Critic as Artist, Oscar Wilde 29

Portrait of Wilde by Toulouse-Lautrec 1895 30

Portrait of Wilde by Toulouse-Lautrec 1895 30

Lionized and feted by the society and the literati • 34, Tite Street (formerly

Lionized and feted by the society and the literati • 34, Tite Street (formerly no. 16. ) Tite Street in Chelsea, fashionable district 31

Evening News 1895 • Labeled as a “sodomite” in public by Queensberry • Marquess

Evening News 1895 • Labeled as a “sodomite” in public by Queensberry • Marquess of Queensberry rules 32

Three trials of Wilde • First modern celebrity trial • Charges of sodomy, “gross

Three trials of Wilde • First modern celebrity trial • Charges of sodomy, “gross indecency” • Wilde filed libel suit against Queensberry • Opposed appearance of Bosie in court as witness • Sentenced to two years of hard labor 33

Gross Indecency: The Three Trials of Oscar Wilde (1997) • Play by Moises Kaufman

Gross Indecency: The Three Trials of Oscar Wilde (1997) • Play by Moises Kaufman chronicling Wilde’s celebrity trials • Putting art on trial 34

Reading Gaol 1895 -97 • It was “misplaced faith in the prison-house of language,

Reading Gaol 1895 -97 • It was “misplaced faith in the prison-house of language, the reading gaol, that landed Wilde in the Reading Gaol”. Valentine Cunningham • De Profundis, long letter to Bosie • Offspring changed name to Holland (Merlin Holland, Vyvyan’s son) 35

Post-Reading exile in Europe • Nom de plume: Sebastian Melmoth • Portrait by Walter

Post-Reading exile in Europe • Nom de plume: Sebastian Melmoth • Portrait by Walter Sickert • Wilde’s visiting card 36

Monument by Jacob Epstein 1912. ' • Died destitute in Paris, 1900 • accepted

Monument by Jacob Epstein 1912. ' • Died destitute in Paris, 1900 • accepted into the Roman Catholic Church the day before • “ And alien tears will for him Pity's long-broken urn, For his mourners will be outcast men, And outcasts always mourn. ” (The Ballad of Reading Gaol) 37

From Wilde to “Holland” • Son denied admittance to Oxford • Family refused accommodation

From Wilde to “Holland” • Son denied admittance to Oxford • Family refused accommodation at a Swiss hotel • Forced to change name • Grandson Merlin Holland, Wilde researcher 38

The Wilde Century • Book by Alan Sinfield • Wilde as a precursor of

The Wilde Century • Book by Alan Sinfield • Wilde as a precursor of celebrity culture, self-publicity, selfaggrandizement • Gay icon in queer movement • postmodernist deconstruction • pop culture (fashion, cult) • postcolonial studies (Eagelton) • Revival in theatre and film 39

Oscar Wilde (1936), a play by Leslie and Sewell Stokes • Film adaptation (1960)

Oscar Wilde (1936), a play by Leslie and Sewell Stokes • Film adaptation (1960) with Robert Morley as Wilde and Ralph Richardson as Marquis’s lawyer • Opens with the pair vacationing in Algiers 40

Saint Oscar by Terry Eagleton • Field Day Company 1989 • Stephen Rea as

Saint Oscar by Terry Eagleton • Field Day Company 1989 • Stephen Rea as Wilde • Irish humor, parable and paradox as subaltern language against British hierarchy 41

Tom Stoppard The Invention of Love (1997) • Poet A. E. Housman • an

Tom Stoppard The Invention of Love (1997) • Poet A. E. Housman • an imagined exchange with Wilde • Wilde’s apparition discourses on love • Travesties (1974): James Joyce rehearsed Earnest in WWI Zurich 42

The Judas Kiss (1998) by David Hare • Liam Neeson as Wilde • Rupert

The Judas Kiss (1998) by David Hare • Liam Neeson as Wilde • Rupert Everett in 2012 revival • fidelity tested in days before arrest • To stay or to flee; love or freedom • Cadogan hotel, London 43

頁 碼 4 5 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Wikimedia Commons: http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Goerg

頁 碼 4 5 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Wikimedia Commons: http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Goerg e. Salmon. Trinity. College. Dublin. jpg 作者名稱: Pablo Pérez, from Bilbao, Spain 作品描述: Trinity College, Dublin 使用者: Magnus Manske 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Millais_Ruski n. jpg 作者名稱: John Everett Millais (1829 -1896) 作品描述: Portrait of John Ruskin, Ashmolean Museum 使用者: Yann 45 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 6 8 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Wikimedia Commons: http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Queen_Victoria_1887. jpg

頁碼 6 8 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Wikimedia Commons: http: //commons. wikimedia. org/wiki/File: Queen_Victoria_1887. jpg 作者名稱: Alexander Bassano (18291913) 作品描述: Portrait of Queen Victoria 使用者: DIREKTOR 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 The Culture Concept Pty Ltd: http: //www. thecultureconcept. com/cir cle/beau-brummell-to-benedictcumberbatch-savile-row-at-london 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 46

頁碼 8 10 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Wonders & Marvels: http: //www. wondersandmarvels. com/2012 /03/the-turn-of-the-leg.

頁碼 8 10 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Wonders & Marvels: http: //www. wondersandmarvels. com/2012 /03/the-turn-of-the-leg. html 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscar_W ilde_by_Napoleon_Sarony_(18211896)_Number_18_b. jpeg 作者名稱: Napoleon Sarony 作品描述: Portrait of Oscar Wilde 使用者: Svajcr 47 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 11 12 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscar-williewilde 23. jpg

頁碼 11 12 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscar-williewilde 23. jpg 作者名稱: Alfred_Bryan 作品描述: Willie Wilde comforting his brother Oscar Wilde after the failure of his play Vera; or, The Nihilists in the United States. 使用者: Araujojoan 96 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: A_Wilde_time _3. jpg 作者名稱: Napoleon Sarony 作品描述: Oscar Wilde, photographic print on card mount: albumen. 使用者: Docu 48 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 13 14 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Sonnet Central: http: //www. sonnets. org/douglas. htm 瀏覽日期:

頁碼 13 14 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Sonnet Central: http: //www. sonnets. org/douglas. htm 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Wildeand douglas. jpg 作品描述: Wilde and Douglas, photograph taken in 1893. 使用者: Magnus Manske 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 49

頁 碼 16 17 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscar_W ilde_(Boston_Public_Library).

頁 碼 16 17 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscar_W ilde_(Boston_Public_Library). jpg 作者名稱: Boston Public Library 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 The City University of New York: http: //www 1. cuny. edu/portal_ur/news/cun y_matters/2003_march/beerbohm. html 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 50

頁碼 18 18 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscarwillie-wilde 23. jpg

頁碼 18 18 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscarwillie-wilde 23. jpg 作者名稱: Alfred_Bryan 作品描述: Willie Wilde comforting his brother Oscar Wilde after the failure of his play Vera; or, The Nihilists in the United States. 使用者: Araujojoan 96 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 Glarean Magazin: http: //glareanverlag. wordpress. com/tag/joa chim-ringelnatz/ 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 51 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。

頁碼 20 21 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 http: //www. besuche-oscarwilde. de/worte/zeitung/fall. htm 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第

頁碼 20 21 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 http: //www. besuche-oscarwilde. de/worte/zeitung/fall. htm 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 Victoria and Albert Museum: http: //www. vam. ac. uk/content/articles/g/g ender-ideology-and-separate-spheres-19 thcentury/ 作品描述: A scene from Romeo & Juliet by William Shakespeare, Lyceum Theatre, London, 1895. 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 52 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。

頁碼 22 23 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 International Psychoanalysis: http: //internationalpsychoanalysis. net/201 2/09/02/salome-wilde-and-freud/ 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 22 23 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 International Psychoanalysis: http: //internationalpsychoanalysis. net/201 2/09/02/salome-wilde-and-freud/ 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: The_Fan _1949_poster. jpg 作品描述: The Fan (1949 film) 使用者: Bwmoll 3 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 53

頁碼 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 24 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: A_Good _Woman_film. jpg 作品描述:

頁碼 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 24 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: A_Good _Woman_film. jpg 作品描述: A Good Woman film poster 使用者: fuzzy 510 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 25 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Awonipe rformance. jpg 作品描述: A Woman of No Importance program from 1930 使用者: Luke C 54 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 26 26 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Victoria and Albert Museum: http: //www. vam. ac.

頁碼 26 26 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Victoria and Albert Museum: http: //www. vam. ac. uk/content/articles/t/th e-importance-of-being-earnest-first-stageproduction/ 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscar_Wilde_ -_An_Ideal_Husband__You_brute!_You_coward!. jpg 作品描述: "You brute! You coward!" from an anonymous artist's illustrations to Oscar Wilde's An Ideal Husband. 使用者: Adam Cuerden 55 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 27 28 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: The_Imp ortance_of_Being_Earnest__Cigarettecase. jpg

頁碼 27 28 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: The_Imp ortance_of_Being_Earnest__Cigarettecase. jpg 作品描述: Photograph from Act 1 of the original production of The Importance of Being Earnest (1895). Photograph taken at St. James's Theatre, London 1895. 使用者: Ramac 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 Started The Criterion Collection: http: //www. criterion. com/films/355 -theimportance-of-being-earnest 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 56 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。

頁碼 30 31 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Olga's Gallery - Online Art Museum: http: //www.

頁碼 30 31 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Olga's Gallery - Online Art Museum: http: //www. abcgallery. com/T/toulouselautrec/toulouse-lautrec 63. html 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Wildeho use. JPG 作品描述: Photo taken by User: Adam Carr, June 2002. 使用者: Magnus Manske 57 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18

頁碼 32 33 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Oscar Wilde Fan Club: http: //oscarwildefanclub. com/index. php/le

頁碼 32 33 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Oscar Wilde Fan Club: http: //oscarwildefanclub. com/index. php/le tter-to-bosie-from-his-father-yourdisgusted-so-called-father/ 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 WIKIPEDIA: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/File: Oscarwil detrial. jpg 作品描述: The Wilde Trial as recorded in The Illustrated Police News, May 4 1895. 使用者: Osado 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 58

頁 碼 34 37 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Tectonic Theater Project: http: //www. tectonictheaterproject. org/Gro

頁 碼 34 37 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 Tectonic Theater Project: http: //www. tectonictheaterproject. org/Gro ss_Indecency. html 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 Branch: http: //www. branchcollective. org/? ps_articl es=ellen-crowell-oscar-wildes-tombsilence-and-the-aesthetics-of-queermemorial 作者名稱: Ellen Crowell 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 59

頁碼 39 42 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 The Independent: http: //www. independent. co. uk/news/world /europe/the-vatican-wakes-up-to-thewisdom-of-oscar-wilde-1750093.

頁碼 39 42 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 The Independent: http: //www. independent. co. uk/news/world /europe/the-vatican-wakes-up-to-thewisdom-of-oscar-wilde-1750093. html 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 Cover Browser: http: //www. coverbrowser. com/covers/boo ks-about-love/8 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 60

頁碼 43 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 London Box Office http: //www. londonboxoffice. co. uk/thejudas-kiss-tickets 瀏覽日期:

頁碼 43 作品 版權圖示 來源/作者 London Box Office http: //www. londonboxoffice. co. uk/thejudas-kiss-tickets 瀏覽日期: 2013/12/18 依據著作權法第 46、52、65條合理使用。 61