SURVEY OF METHODS Summary collected by T Navs

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SURVEY OF METHODS Summary collected by T. Navés Teresa Navés tnaves@. ub. edu Universitat

SURVEY OF METHODS Summary collected by T. Navés Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 1

I. History / Evolution / Changes of ELT Methodology II. Recent developments in ELT

I. History / Evolution / Changes of ELT Methodology II. Recent developments in ELT Methodology /Innovative ELTM III. The umbrella of Communicative Approaches © Teresa Naves [email protected] ub. es http: //lada. fil. ub. es/Angles/ELTM Universitat de Barcelona Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 2

Introduction (I) XX Century Age of the Refugee: (Immigrants) New nations Democracy Universal schooling

Introduction (I) XX Century Age of the Refugee: (Immigrants) New nations Democracy Universal schooling Coping with difficulties in Learning and schooling The role and teaching of languages: L 1/L 2 FLA SLA AL Language Policy Linguistics Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 3

Technique/ Syllabus/ Curriculum Theory Approach Methodology Method Technique Syllabus Curriculum Teresa Navés tnaves@. ub.

Technique/ Syllabus/ Curriculum Theory Approach Methodology Method Technique Syllabus Curriculum Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 4

Theory Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

Theory Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited. A statement of a general principle, based upon reasoned argument and supported by evidence, that is intended to explain a particular fact, event or phenomenon. A Theory is more strongly supported by evidence than a hypothesis. The part of a science or art that deals with general principles and methods as opposed to practice: a set or rules or principles for the study of a subject Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 5

Approach Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

Approach Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Anthony, 1963 and Richards and Rodgers 1986 Language teaching is something discussed in terms of three related aspects: approach, method and technique Different theories about the nature of langauge and how languages are learned (the approach) imply different ways of teaching language (the method) and different methods make use of different kinds of classroom activities (the tecniques) Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 6

Approach (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992).

Approach (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Anthony, 1963 and Richards and Rodgers 1986 Examples of different approaches are n n The aural-oral approach (see audiolingual method) The communicative approach etc. Examples of different methods which are based on a particular approach are n n The Audiolingual method The Direct Method Examples of techniques used in particular methods are: n n Drills Dialogues, Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 7

Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992).

Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Richards and Rodgers 1986 A way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principles and procedures, i. e. , which is an implication of views on how language is best taught and learned. Examples: n n n Direct Method Audiolingual Method Grammar-Translation Method Silent way Communicative Approach Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 8

Method (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992).

Method (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Richards and Rodgers 1986 The different methods result from different views of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The nature of language learning Goals and objectives in teaching Type of syllabus to use The role of the teachers, learners and intructional materials The techniques and procedures to use. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 9

Methodology (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992).

Methodology (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Rivers 1981, Omaggio, 1986 and Richards 1990 (1) The study of the practices and procedures used in teaching, and the principles and beliefs that underline them Methodology include: 1. 2. 3. Study of the nature of language skills Lesson Plans Evaluation and comparison of teaching methods. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 10

Methodology (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992).

Methodology (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Rivers 1981, Omaggio, 1986 and Richards 1990 (2) The study of practices, procedures, principles and beliefs themselves (3) (in research) the procedures used in carrying out an investigation, including the methods used to collect and analyze them. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 11

Syllabus Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

Syllabus Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Johnson 1989, Nunan 1988, Wilkins 1976 A description of the contents of a course of instruction and the order in which they are to be taught. Language-teaching syllabus may be based on n Grammatical items and vocabulary (structural syllabus) n The language needed for different types of situations (situational method) n The meanings and communicative functions which the learner needs to express in the target language (notional sylalbus) Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 12

Curriculum Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

Curriculum Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK Limited based on Nunan 1988, Pratt, 1980; White 1988 An educational programme which states n An educational purpose of the programme (the ends) n The content, teaching procedures and learning experiences which will be necessary to achieve this procedure (the means) n Some means for assessing whether or not the educational ends have been achieved Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 13

(I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

(I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Howwat, 1983 Kelly 1969 A method of FL or SL teaching which makes use of translation and grammar study as the main teaching and learning activities. The GTM was the traditional way Latin and Greek were taught in Europe IN the 19 th Century it began to be used to teach ‘modern’ languages such as French, German and English, and it is still used in many countries today. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 14

(II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

(II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Howwat, 1983 Kelly 1969 A typical lesson consists of the preparation of a grammatical rule, a study of lists of vocabulary and a translation exercise. Because the GTM emphasizes reading rather than the ability to communicate in language there was a reaction to it in the 19 th century. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 15

Grammar Translation Method (III) It is teacher-centered It is usually regarded as non-communicative, non-motivational

Grammar Translation Method (III) It is teacher-centered It is usually regarded as non-communicative, non-motivational It may be still be used today because of hte lack of pressure put on hte teacher, who is not required to speak the L 2. The only thing students may walk away in this method is the ability to read and interpret text Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 16

Direct Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Direct Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Titone, 1968 and Richards & Rodgers 1986 A method of FL or SL teaching which has the following features: 1. Only the TL should be used in class 2. Meanings should be communicated ‘directly’ (hence the name of the method) by associating speech forms with actions, objects, mime, gestures and situations. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 17

Direct Method (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Direct Method (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Titone, 1968 and Richards & Rodgers 1986 3. Reading and writing should be taught only after speaking 4. Grammar should only be taught inductively; i. e. Grammar rules should not be taught to learners. The DM was developed in the late 19 th century as a reaction to the GTM Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 18

Direct Method (III) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Direct Method (III) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Titone, 1968 and Richards & Rodgers 1986 Introduced by Bertlitz A typical class might go something like: Read passage aloud, explain new vocabulary, discuss text and paraphrase, and complete some comprehension questions and do some phonetic work on new words Translation and the use of L 1 was not appropriate in this method. Lots of oral repetition was used for new words Written work. Teresa was. Navés not as improtant [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona One criticisim is the lack of organization. 19

Audiolingual Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Audiolingual Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Rivers, 1964 and Richards & Rodgers 1986 A method of FL or SL teaching which 1. Empahsizes the teaching of speaking and listening before reading and writing 2. Uses dialogues and drills 3. Discourages use of mother tongue in classrooms 4. Often makes use of contrastive analysis Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 20

Audiolingual Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Audiolingual Method (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Rivers, 1964 and Richards & Rodgers 1986 The Audiolingual method was prominent in the 1950 s and 1960 s, especially in the US, and has been widely used in many other parts of the world. The theory behing the audiolingual method is hte aural-oral approach to language teaching, which contains the following beliefs about language and language learning: Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 21

Audiolingual Method (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Audiolingual Method (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Rivers, 1964 and Richards & Rodgers 1986 The following ideas were based partly on theory of Structural linguistics and partly on Behaviourism 1. Speaking and listening are the most basic skils 2. Each language has its own unique structure and rule system 3. A language is learned through forming habits Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 22

Audiolingual Method (III) Emphasis lied on correction and not on understanding the message It

Audiolingual Method (III) Emphasis lied on correction and not on understanding the message It was also known as the Mim-Mem method because students would mime and memorize dialogues before going on with drills. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 23

Communicative Language Learning CLL (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , &

Communicative Language Learning CLL (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986 1. A method of SL or FL teaching devoloped by Charles Currant. 2. CLL is an application of counselling learning to SL and FL teaching and learning. 3. It uses techniques developed in group counselling to help people with psychological and emotional problems Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 24

Communicative Language Learning CLL (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , &

Communicative Language Learning CLL (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986 4. The method makes use of grouplearning in small or large groups. 5. These groups are the ‘community’ 6. The method palces emphasis on hte learners’ personal feelings and thir reactions to language learning. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 25

Communicative Language Learning CLL (III) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , &

Communicative Language Learning CLL (III) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986 7 Learners say things which they want to talk about, int heir native language 8 The teacher (known as ‘councelor’) translates the learner’s sentences into the foreign language, and the learner then repeats this to the other members of the group Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 26

Communicative Language Learning CLL (IV) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , &

Communicative Language Learning CLL (IV) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Currant 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986 It follows Krashen’s Monitoring Theory (affective filter) Stages like L 1 children Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 27

Silent Way Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992).

Silent Way Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Gattegno, 1976 and Richards & Rogers 1986 A method of FL teaching developed by Gattegno which makes use of gesture, mime, visual aid, wall charts, and in particular Cuisinière rods (wooden sticks of different lengts and colours) that the teacher uses to help the students to talk. The method takes its name from the relative silence of the teacher using these techniques. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 28

Suggestopedia Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman

Suggestopedia Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Lozanov, 1979; Rogers 1986 A method of FL teaching developed by the Bulgarian Lozanov. It makes use of dialogues, situations, and translations to present and practice languge and in particular, makes use of music, visual images and relaxation exercises to make learninig more comfortable and effective. It is said to be a pedagogical application of ‘Suggestology’, the influence of suggestions on human behaviour. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 29

Total Physical Response TPT Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt,

Total Physical Response TPT Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Asher, 1977 1979; Rogers 1986 A language teaching method developed by Asher in which item are presented in the FL as orders, commands, and instructions requiring a physical response from the learner (e. g. Opening a window or standing up) This is thought to lead to more meaningful and effective learning Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 30

Notional-Functional Syllabus (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Notional-Functional Syllabus (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Wilinks 1976 A syllabus in which the language content is arranged according to the meanings a learner needs to express through language and the functions the learner will use the language for. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 31

Notional-Functional Syllabus (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Notional-Functional Syllabus (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Wilinks 1976 The term ‘notional’ is taken from ‘notional grammar’. A notional syllabus is contrasted with n n a grammatical syllabus or ‘structural syllabus’ (one which consists of a sequence of graded language items) or a ‘situational syllabus’ (one which consists of situations and the relevant language items) Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 32

Notional-Functional Syllabus (III) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

Notional-Functional Syllabus (III) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Wilinks 1976 The notional syllabus contains: n n The meanings and concepts the learner needs in order to communicate (e. g. Time, quantity, duration, location) and the language needed to expresss them. These concepts and meanings are called ‘notions’. The language needed to express different functions or speech acts (e. g. Requesting, suggesting, promising, describing) Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 33

Notional-Functional Syllabus (IV) Beginning with the work of the Council of Europe Threshold Level

Notional-Functional Syllabus (IV) Beginning with the work of the Council of Europe Threshold Level (Van Ek and Alexander, 1975) Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 34

The Communicative Approach (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt,

The Communicative Approach (I) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 An approach to FL or SL teaching which emphasizes that the goal of language learning is ‘Communicative Competence’ The CA has been developed particularly by British applied linguists as a reaction away from grammar-based approaches such as the audiolingual method. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 35

The Communicative Approach (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt,

The Communicative Approach (II) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 Teaching materials in the CA often: 1. Teach the language needed to express and understand different kinds of functions, such as requesting, describing, expressing likes and dislikes, etc. 2. Are based on ‘notional syllabus’ or some other communicatively organized syllabus. 3. Emphasize the processes of communication, such as using language appropriately in different kinds of tasks, e. g. To solve puzzles, ot get information, etc. Using language for social Navés [email protected] ub. edu interaction with. Teresa other people. Universitat de Barcelona 36

The Communicative Approach (III): Communicative Competence (i) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J.

The Communicative Approach (III): Communicative Competence (i) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 The ability not only to apply the grammatical rules of a language in order to form grammatical correct sentences but also to know when and where to sue the sentences and to whom. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 37

The Communicative Approach (IV): Communicative Competence (ii) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J.

The Communicative Approach (IV): Communicative Competence (ii) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 Communicative Competence includes: 1. Knowledge of the grammar and vocabulary of the language 2. Knowledge of rules of speaking (e. g. Knowing how to begin and end conversations, knowing what topics may be talked about in different types of speech events, knowing which ‘address forms’ should be used with different persons one speaks to an in different situations Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 38

The Communicative Approach (V): Communicative Competence (iii) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J.

The Communicative Approach (V): Communicative Competence (iii) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 3. Knowing how to use and respond to different types of speech acts, such as requests, apologies, thanks, and invitations. 4. Knowing how to use language appropriately. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 39

The Communicative Approach (VI): Communicative Competence (iv) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J.

The Communicative Approach (VI): Communicative Competence (iv) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 When someone wishes to communicate with others, they must recognize the social setting, their relationship to other persons, and the types of language that can be used for a particular occasion. They must be ale to interpret written or spoken sentences withing the total context in which they are used. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 40

The Communicative Approach (VII): Communicative Competence (v) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J.

The Communicative Approach (VII): Communicative Competence (v) Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Littlewood (1981); Richards and Rogers 1986 For example, the English statement ‘It’s rather hot in here’ could be seen as a request, particularly to someone in a lower role relationship, to close a window or door or to turn on the heating. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 41

The Task-based syllabus: Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H.

The Task-based syllabus: Source: Richards, J. C. , Platt, J. , & Platt, H. (1992). Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (2 nd ed. ). Harlow, Essex: Longman Group UK based on Prabhu, 1983 Johnson 1982 A syllabus which is organized around tasks, rather than in terms of grammar or vocabulary. For example, using the telephone to obtain information, etc. It has been argued that this is a more effective way of learning a language since it provides a purpose for the use and learning of a language other than simply learning language items for their own sake. Teresa Navés [email protected] ub. edu Universitat de Barcelona 42