Substance Abuse What is Substance Abuse substance abuse

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Substance Abuse

Substance Abuse

What is Substance Abuse? � substance abuse is the overindulgence in and dependence of

What is Substance Abuse? � substance abuse is the overindulgence in and dependence of a drug or other chemical leading to effects that are detrimental to the individual's physical and mental health, or the welfare of others

Commonly Abused Substances by Adolescents: � Alcohol � Tobacco � Over the counter Cold

Commonly Abused Substances by Adolescents: � Alcohol � Tobacco � Over the counter Cold and Cough Medicines � Hallucinogenic � Opiates � Stimulants (crystal meth, cocaine, adderall) � Club drugs � Depressants (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepine, muscle relaxers) � Inhalants � Prescription drugs

Prescription Drugs � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Uq_Zds. Eh D 1 o

Prescription Drugs � http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Uq_Zds. Eh D 1 o

Alcohol: � The average when youth first try alcohol is 11 years for boys

Alcohol: � The average when youth first try alcohol is 11 years for boys and 13 years for girls. � By age 14, 41 percent of children have had least one drink. � The average at which Americans begin drinking regularly is 15. 9 years old. � Teens who begin drinking before age 15 are five times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who begin drinking at age 21.

Hallucenogenics "Adolescents are particularly at risk of adverse reactions from hallucinogen use as they

Hallucenogenics "Adolescents are particularly at risk of adverse reactions from hallucinogen use as they enter puberty, a time of rapid physical and emotional changes. Hallucinogens are particularly dangerous because the effects are so unpredictable. They can cause violent behavior in some and suicidal tendencies in others. As memory, perception, and judgment are clouded under the influence, users are at risk of severe injuries, overdose, and death from drowning, burns, falls, and car accidents. Sometimes, hallucinogen use can uncover severe mental disorders, such as schizophrenia or severe depression. " Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

Graph: Inhalants are also said to be the gateway drug!

Graph: Inhalants are also said to be the gateway drug!

Club Drugs: � Club drugs are a pharmacologically heterogeneous group of psychoactive compounds that

Club Drugs: � Club drugs are a pharmacologically heterogeneous group of psychoactive compounds that tend to be abused by teens and young adults at a nightclub, bar, rave, or trance scene. Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, and ketamine are some of the drugs in this group along with MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine. Ecstasy is the most commonly abused of the club drugs. Rave or rave party is a term first used in the 1980 s and 90 s to describe dance parties (often all-night events) with fast-paced electronic music and light shows. Club drugs are easily found at these parties.

Anabolic Steroids and Stimulants � Steroids: Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds

Anabolic Steroids and Stimulants � Steroids: Anabolic steroids are a group of powerful compounds closely related to the male sex hormone testosterone. From 1998 to 1999, there was a significant increase in anabolic steroid abuse among middle school aged adolescents. Many adolescents use steroids to increase their body muscle mass. � Stimulants: The possible long -term effects include tolerance and dependence, violence and aggression, malnutrition due to suppression of appetite. Crack, a powerfully addictive stimulant, is the term used for a smokeable form of cocaine. In 1997, an estimated 1. 5 million Americans, age 12 and older, were chronic cocaine users. Crystal meth is a stimulant that has become very popular in recent years. Crystal Meth is similar to cocaine in its euphoric effects, but is longer lasting.

The Facts: � � The average of first marijuana use is 14, and alcohol

The Facts: � � The average of first marijuana use is 14, and alcohol use can start before age 12. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco are the most common abused substances of adolescents Drug use is associated with a variety of negative consequences, including increased risk of serious drug use later in life, school failure, and poor judgment which may put teens at risk for accidents, violence, unplanned and unsafe sex, and suicide An estimated 19. 9 million Americans aged 12 or older were current users of an illicit drug in 2007. This estimate represents 8. 0 percent of the population.

Alcohol, Marijuana, and Cigarettes

Alcohol, Marijuana, and Cigarettes

Timeline: Trends � � � The 1960’s and 70’s had an increase in adolescent

Timeline: Trends � � � The 1960’s and 70’s had an increase in adolescent substance abuse. Many youth turned to marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, and hallucinogens. This was due to social and political unrest. The use of drugs among secondary school students declined in the 1980’s but began to increase in the early 90’s. In the late 90’s, and early part of the 21 st century, the number of secondary students reporting the use of drugs decreased. The overall decline in drug use of adolescents during this time frame is approximately 1/3 rd for 8 th graders, 1/4 th for 10 th graders, and 1/8 th for 12 th graders. The most notable declines in drug use by U. S. adolescents in the 21 st century have occurred for marijuana, LSD, cocaine, ecstasy, steroids, and cigarettes. Even with this decrease the U. S still has one of the highest rates of adolescent drug use of any industrialized nation.

Graph:

Graph:

Factors of Substance Abuse in Adolescents: � Being born in a high-risk family (especially

Factors of Substance Abuse in Adolescents: � Being born in a high-risk family (especially a poor, single, and/or teenage mother) � Experiencing an increase in harsh parenting in childhood � Having conduct problems in school � Rejection by peers in childhood � Increase in conflict with parents in early adolescence � Having low parental monitoring � Hanging out with deviant peers in early adolescence � Having parents that are substance abusers themselves. � Traumatic childhood experiences (molestation, rape, loss of a parent…)

Prevention: � Parents and parental control and monitoring � Good peer influence � Parents

Prevention: � Parents and parental control and monitoring � Good peer influence � Parents who are more involved in their adolescents life help with the decrease in the probability that their child will become involved in substance abuse � Not engaging in delinquent behaviors � Community wide prevention plan (Schools, media, role models, parents, peers, police, courts, and youth service agencies can be effective in reducing adolescent substance abuse). Evaluations of the community wide prevention plan after 18 months and after four years, revealed significantly lower rates of alcohol and marijuana use by adolescents and their counterparts in other areas where the program was not in operation.

Signs of Substance Abuse: � � � � School work has declined; grades suddenly

Signs of Substance Abuse: � � � � School work has declined; grades suddenly slipping or dropping dramatically Missing school (skipping secretly or too "tired" or "sick" to go) Mood changes (irritable, crying jags) Dropping out of usual activities (music, sports, hobbies) Physical appearance changing (poor hygiene, unusual style changes) Friends suddenly change; doesn't introduce new friends Money or valuables missing from parents' purse, from home Furtive or secretive behavior (e. g. , bedroom door locked and takes long time to answer) Hostile, aggressive outbursts Seems to have "lost" motivation Forgetfulness Unusual sleeping habits (changing over time or dramatic change) Depressed Anxious

Treatment: � � Personal and family therapy Treatment centers (intensive out-patient and in-patient rehabilitation).

Treatment: � � Personal and family therapy Treatment centers (intensive out-patient and in-patient rehabilitation). Includes hospitals and rehab facilities. Training school (military style rehabilitation for juvenile offenders- (last resort) Adolescent offender programs (drug courts and probations for people 1217 years old) The typical success rate of most adolescent drug rehabs is 2% to 20%. The success rate is lower for adolescents than it is for adults.

The End

The End