- Slides: 19
Subject: NUTRITION THROUGH LIFE CYCLE Subject Code: 16 SCCND 4
MEAL PLANNING A good meal should be nourishing and well cooked with a careful blend of foods and flavours. Enjoyment of food is used by many factors such as appearance, taste and smell. One of the most important aspects of any good meal is a relaxed happy atmosphere; this help us to enjoy our food and makes a meal a pleasurable occasion. Mealtime is often the only time when the whole family is gathered together and it should be an opportunity for relaxation and casual conversation.
MENU PLANNING It is the process of planning & scheduling intake of meals based on individual requirements. Diet should be adequate. Adequate intake is determined by RDA The average daily dietary nutrient intake level sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly 97 to 98 % for all healthy individuals in a particular life stage & gender group. Food group system / food pyramid helps in selecting food & balanced diet.
VARIOUS POINTS TO CONSIDER DURING MEAL PLANNING INCLUDE The occasion The number of people being catered for The amount of money available The ability of the cook Equipment available e. g. Type of cooker e. t. c. Time available for preparation Seasonable foods and climactic conditions. Individual tastes Ingredients available and there nutritive value
GUIDELINE TO MEAL PLANNING A meal should look nice, it should be freshly its best. prepared and served so that it looks Colour foods can be added for attractive meals. e. g. garnishing; it improved its appearance. Slice of orange or tomato may also be used to improve its appearance. A meal should smell good. An appetizing aroma is not only pleasant in itself but it stimulates the flow of digestive juices and makes digestion easier. This is one reason for starting a meal with a good smelling soup. A meal should be interesting. If the same interest may be lost. food appears twice in a meal, season of the year. Meals should contain some dietary fibre. Although it cannot be digested, fibre Meals should take account of the prevents constipation and keeps us healthy. All meals should provide a reasonable amount of water. Ideally water itself is best although it may be provided in the form of hot beverages or juices. Meals should be eaten in cheerful and relaxing surroundings. Meals should be eaten with clean and attractive utensils. Both animal and vegetable protein should be involved in meals regularly.
PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING DIETS Meeting nutritional requirement Meal pattern should fulfill family needs. Meal planning should save time & energy. Should consider economic constraint. Should give maximum nutrients. Should consider individual likes and dislikes. Should provide variety of meals. Should give satiety. Should include locally available foods. Should include healthy available foods.
POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED IN PLANNING A DIET Minimum RDA must be met. (Energy plus or minus 50 kcal) Energy derived from cereals should not be more than 75%. Better to include 2 cereals in one meal ex: rice & wheat. High nutritive value products can be included like whole grain cereals, brown rice, hand pounded rice etc. . Foods should not be seived ex: chapathi flour Consume refine products in minimum amount. To improve cereal & pulse protein quality use both in the ratio of 4: 1 Egg can also be added with the combination of cereal & pulse.
500 ml of milk / day s’d be included (as milk / curd) Red meat s’d taken in minimum quantity. Every meal should contain small amont of fruit. Fish atleast twice a week. Inclusion of salads / raitas increase the vitamins & minerals requirement. It gives satiety value & fibre content. Green leafy vegetable atleast one serving per day. Use combination of oils which gives proper balance of omega 3 & omega 6 fatty acids. Diet should be low in fat, saturated fat Variety of foods should be used in the menu. Use salt & sugar in moderation.
Each meal should contain all five food groups. Number of meals should be more. Each meal should contain one third of calories & protein requirements. Food exchange list can be used for quick calculations. Processed food s’d not be used which contains more additives. Water should be taken in adequate quantities.
STEPS INVOLVED IN PLANNING A DIET STEP I: Recommended Dietary Allowances STEP II: Food Exchange List Balanced diet & no. of portion sizes for different age groups & physical activities. Coked food exchange lists also available STEP III: Making menu Step II food lists are converted into recipes.
BREAKFAST This being the first meal of the day, It should be nourishing and digestible. The quantity depends on the requirement of the individual. For most people it should be substantial, because the interval between breakfast and the next meal is usually long. During this time a considerable amount of energy is used up, especially by children of school going age and by manual workers.
MIDDLY AND EVENING MEALS The size and character will vary with the individual and the family. For many people, lunch is the main meal of the day and it should be planned so as to be satisfying meal. whereas evening meals are usually light meals taken before going to bed.
FOOD-BASED DIETARY GUIDELINES No single food by itself (except breast-milk) provides all the nutrients in the right amount that will promote growth and maintain life. To achieve good nutrition therefore, it is necessary to consume as wide a variety of foods as possible from the age of 6 months. Infants (0 -6 months): Start exclusive breast-feeding immediately after birth and continue for 6 months. There should be no bottle-feeding. Infants (6 -12 months): Continue breast feeding. Introduce complementary feeds made from a variety of cereals, tubers, legumes, fruits, animal foods and give with cup and spoon.
Toddlers (12 -24 months): continue to breast-feed until child is 2 years Giver enriched mashed foods twice daily Give family diet made soft with less pepper and spices Give fruits and vegetables in season Children (25 -60 months): Give diet that contains a variety of foods in adequate amounts. Add vegetable oil to raise the energy level of complementary foods. Gradually increase food intake to 4 -5 times daily as baby gets older. Provide dark green leafy vegetables, yellow/orange coloured fruits, citrus fruits, cereals, legumes, tubers and foods of animal origin. Limit the consumption of sugary food. Continue feeding even when child is ill.
School-Aged Children (6 -11 years): Give diet that contains a variety of foods in adequate amounts. Encourage consumption of good quality snacks, but limit the consumption of sugary snacks. Adolescents (12 -18 years): Continue diet containing a variety of foods. Most of the energy should be derived from roots/tubers, legumes, cereals, vegetables and less from animal foods. An increase in total food intake is very important at this stage, so is the need to enjoy family meals. Snacks especially pastry and carbonated drinks should not replace main meals. If you must eat out, make wise food choices.
Adults (Male and Female): Total food intake should take into consideration the level of physical activity. Individuals who do manual work need to consume more food than those who do sedentary work. Limit the fat intake from animal foods Diet should consist of as wide as variety of foods as possible e. g. cereals, legumes, roots/tubers, fruits, veg, fish, lean meat, local cheese (wara). Limit intake of salt and sugar Liberal consumption of whatever fruits that are in season is encouraged.
Pregnant women: Eat diet that contains a variety of foods in adequate amounts. Consume enough food to ensure adequate weight gain. Eat more of cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, dairy products and animal foods. Take iron and folic acid supplements as prescribed. Avoid alcohol, addictive substances and smoking. Breast-Feeding Mothers: Eat diet that contains a variety of available food items like cereals, tubers, legumes, meat, fish, milk, fruits, vegetables etc. consume more of foods rich in iron such as liver, fish, beef, etc. Eat fruits in season at every meal. Consume green leafy vegetables liberally. Consume fluids as needed to quench thirst. Avoid alcohol, addictive substances and smoking.
The Elderly: Eat diets that are prepared from variety of available foods e. g. cereals, tubers, fruits, vegetables, etc. Increase consumption of fish and fish-based diets. Eat more of fruits and vegetables. Eat more frequently. Consume boiled & soft foods. Avoid more oily & fried items.