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STYLISTIC CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY LECTURE 10
STYLISTIC CLASSIFICATION OF ENGLISH VOCABULARY 10. 1. Stylistic Classification of English Vocabulary. 10. 2. Formal Vocabulary. 10. 3. Informal Vocabulary.
Ø words are not used in speech to the same ex tent; Ø certain words occur less frequently than others; Ø words that are indispensable in every act of communication have nothing particular about them and cause no definite associations; Ø words used only in special spheres of linguistic intercourse have something attached to their meaning, a certain stylistic colour ing.
Ø Indispensable words are stylistically neutral. Ø Words of special spheres are stylistically coloured. Ø Certain groups of stylistically coloured words are formed by words with a tinge of officiality or refinement about them. Ø Other groups of stylistically coloured words are used in socially lower sphere. Ø These two groups form literary and colloquial strata respectively.
Formal (bookish) vocabulary DECESE ATTIRE DECLINE Neutral (unmarked) vocabulary DIE CLOTHES REFUSE Informal (colloquial, sub-neutral) vocabulary SNUFF IT RAGS TURN DOWN
Literary words serve to satisfy communicative demands of official, scientific, poetic messages. Colloquial words are employed in non official everyday communication. Each layer is further divided into the common and special bulks → Common literary and Special literary Common colloquial and Special colloquial
FORMAL VOCABULARY Literary (bookish) words belong to that stratum of the vocabulary which is used in cultivated speech: Ø books, Ø official papers and documents, Ø scientific communication, Ø high poetry, Ø author's speech of creative prose, Ø special types of oral communication: public speeches, offi cial negotiations, etc. Bookish words are mostly loan words, Latin and Greek. They are either high flown synonyms of neutral words, or popular terms of science.
FORMAL VOCABULARY Common literary are easily recognized words and widely used by the majority of native and non native speakers, e. g. sophisticated, fabulous. They contribute to the message the tone of solemnity, sophistication, seriousness, gravity, learnedness, cf. : He began to answer vs He commenced his rejoinder
FORMAL VOCABULARY Special literary words comprises: Ø Terms Ø Archaic words Ø Poetic words Ø Foreign words Ø Barbarisms Ø Neologisms
FORMAL VOCABULARY Terms – words denoting objects, processes, phenomena of science, humanities, technique. They may be subdivided into: • Popular terms of some special spheres of human knowledge known to the public at large (e. g. typhoid, pneumonia); • Terms used exclusively within a profession (e. g. morpheme). Archaisms – words which are practically out of use in present day language and are felt as obsolete. They are subdivided into 2 groups: • Historical words, denoting historical phenomena which are no more in use (e. g. yeoman, vassal, falconet). • Archaic words (archaic forms) proper – those which disappeared in the course of language history and were substituted by newer synonymic words (e. g. thou wilt – you will; brethren – brothers).
FORMAL VOCABULARY Poetic words are used exclusively in poetry and the like. Many of these words are archaic: e. g. foe (enemy), realm (kingdom). Others are morphologi cal variants of neutral words: oft (often), list (listen), morn (morning). Fоrеign words (neglige, au revoir, Bundeswehr) are words and phrases loaned from other languages. These words haven't undergone grammatical or phonetic assimilation. Fr. : bonjour, Ital. : dolce far niente. Lat. : alter ego, mirabile dictu.
FORMAL VOCABULARY Barbarisms are foreign words which have exact equivalents in the language thus being unnecessary: e. g. chic (stylish); bon mot (a clever or witty saying). They are considered to be part of the vocabulary of the given language constituting its peripheral layer. They are usually registered in dictionaries (apropos, vis-a-vis, etc. ). Neologisms are new words or expressions. These words have the connotation of novelty. Mainly these are terms with both new form and new meaning, e. g. audio typing; computer-buyer; to telecommute; electronic cottage.
INFORMAL VOCABULARY Common colloquial are words with a tinge of familiarity or inofficiality about them. There is nothing ethically improper in their stylistic coloring, except that they cannot be used in official forms of speech. Colloquial words mark the message as informal, non official, conversational. Neutral vocabulary: His father has died. Informal vocabulary: His old man has kicked away.
INFORMAL VOCABULARY Special colloquial words are slang words, jargonisms, vulgarisms and dialectal words. Slang words are highly emotive and expressive. They lose their originality rather fast and are replaced by newer formations: e. g. go crackers (go mad); guru (god); belt up (keep silence); bighead (a boaster).
INFORMAL VOCABULARY Jargonisms replace those words which already exist in the language and stand close to slang (substandard, expressive and emotive), but, unlike slang they are used by limited groups of people, united either professionally or socially. Professionalisms are unofficial substitutes of professional terms. They are used by representatives of the profes sion to facilitate the communication. e. g. bull (one who buys shares at the stock exchange); bear (one who sells shares). Social jargonisms are words used to de note non professional things relevant for representatives of the given social group with common interests (e. g. music fans, drug-addicts, thieves, etc). Very often they are used for the purpose of making speech incoherent to outsiders.
INFORMAL VOCABULARY Vulgarisms are coarse words with a strong emotive meaning, mostly derogatory, normally avoided in polite conversation. e. g. There is so much bad shit between the two gangs that I bet there will be more killings this year. The border line between colloquialisms, slang words and vulgarisms is often hard to draw for there are hardly any linguistic criteria of discrimination. Dialectal words are normative and devoid of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong. e. g. baccy (tobacco), unbeknown (unknown).