- Slides: 24
Stress, Motivation Theories, and Emotional Responses
STRESS: - Holmes & Rahe Scales: 1967: Identified experiences for adults and non-adults that are most likely to cause physical health issues - Types of health problems associated with stress: Cancer, heart disease, high blood pressure
Hans Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome
Stage 1: Alarm -Upon encountering a stressor, body reacts with “fight-or-flight” response and sympathetic nervous system is activated. -Hormones such as cortisol and adrenalin released into the bloodstream to meet the threat or danger. -The body’s resources now mobilized.
Stage 2: Resistance -Parasympathetic nervous system returns many physiological functions to normal levels while body focuses resources against the stressor. -Blood glucose levels remain high, cortisol and adrenalin continue to circulate at elevated levels, but outward appearance of organism seems normal. -Increase HR, BP, breathing -Body remains on red alert.
Stage 3: Exhaustion -If stressor continues beyond body’s capacity, organism exhausts resources and becomes susceptible to disease and death.
MOTIVATION THEORIES Why do we do the things we do?
Theory Instinct Theory Drive Reduction Theory Arousal Theory Incentive Theory Cognitive Theory Self-Actualization Theory Psychologist & Perspective Explanation of Behavior
Perspectives on Motivation There are 6 perspectives to explain motivation including the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Instinct Theory Drive-Reduction Theory Arousal Theory Incentive Theory Cognitive Theory Self-Actualization Theory (AKA Hierarchy of Motives) 13
Instinct Theory (Evolutionary Perspective) 1950’s: Instincts are complex behaviors that have fixed patterns throughout the species and are not learned. Tony Brandenburg/ Bruce Coleman, Inc. © Ariel Skelley/ Masterfile Where the woman builds different kinds of houses the bird builds only one kind of nest. 14
Instinct Theory • Decreased in popularity – Most important human behavior is learned – Human behavior is rarely inflexible and found throughout the species – Psychologists during the height of this craze identified 5759 ‘instincts’ • Humans have reflexes but not instincts 15
Drive-Reduction Theory Bodily Needs (Biological Perspective) When the instinct theory of motivation failed it was replaced by the drive-reduction theory. A physiological need creates a state of tension (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Aim: Homeostasis! on i s n Te 16
Two types of drives • Primary drive -Unlearned drive based on a physiological state found in all animals -Motivate behavior necessary for survival -Hunger, thirst and sex • Secondary drive -Learned drive – wealth or success • Problems with Drive-Reduction Theory – Once homeostasis is achieved we’d never do anything! – Not just balance we’re looking for in life! 17
Arousal Theory (Cognitive Perspective) (Arousal in this context = Awareness/Focus/Engagement) Human motivation aims to seek optimum levels of arousal, not to eliminate it. All of our actions have an ideal level of arousal. -Sleep -Performing on Stage -Studying -Driving -Watching TV
Arousal Theory • Yerkes-Dodson Law – States that there is an optimal level of arousal for best performance on any task – The more complex the task, the lower the level of arousal that can be tolerated without interfering with performance 19
Incentive Theory (Cognitive Perspective) -Our behaviors are completely based on WANTS -We are purely motivated by rewards
Cognitive Theory (Cognitive Perspective!) Like the Incentive Theory, but not as simple. Our behaviors continue/cease due to reinforcement & punishment • Intrinsic motivation – Motivation for a behavior is the behavior itself – Children playing, for example • Extrinsic motivation – Behavior is performed in order to obtain a reward or to avoid punishment – Money earned for A’s on report card
Self-Actualization Theory AKA Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Humanistic Perspective) Abraham Maslow (1970 s) suggested that certain needs have priority over others. Physiological needs like breathing, thirst, and hunger come before psychological needs such as achievement, self-esteem, and the need for recognition.
Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs
Hierarchy of Needs