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Strategies Learning Strategies Metacognitive Cognitive Scaffolding Techniques Higher-Order Questioning
Strategies • It is important for teachers to recognize the distinction between instructional strategies and learning strategies. • Instructional Strategies–Activities, techniques, approaches, and methods that teachers use to promote student learning and achievement • Learning Strategies–Conscious, flexible plans that learners use to make sense of what they’re reading and learning; these reside in the learners’ heads SIOP training manual, p. 125 and 133
Learning Strategies • Cognitive • Metacognitive Rereading Highlighting Reading aloud Taking notes Mapping information Finding key vocabulary o Mnemonics o Etc. o o o Predicting/Inferring Self-questioning Monitoring/Clarifying Evaluating Summarizing Visualizing SIOP training manual, pg. 135
Strategies • When teaching strategies, educators need to help English learners and other students understand declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge (Lipson and Wixson, 2008). SIOP training manual, p. 125
Strategies When teaching strategies, help students acquire… • Declarative knowledge (What a particular strategy is) What does it mean to predict (question, monitor, clarify, summarize, etc. )? • Procedural knowledge (How a particular strategy is used by a student) What should I do to monitor my understandings? • Conditional knowledge (Why and under what conditions particular strategies are used) When I’m reading, when is a good time to stop and summarize what I have read?
Strategies • The term scaffolding refers to the degree of support and assistance that teachers provide when students are learning a new content concept and to the gradual release of responsibility from the teacher to students when the support is reduced. The ultimate goal is for students to reach independence in the understanding and application of the key concept. SIOP training manual, pg. 127
Strategies: Providing Scaffolding Student- Centered Peer- Assisted Teacher. Centered • • Minilecture Explicit instruction • • • Practice Teacher modeling Discussion • • • Peer modeling Reciprocal teaching Cooperative learning • Apply strategies during independent reading
Bloom’s Taxonomy Synthesis Creating “new” from the parts Evaluation Determining value and providing a rationale for the response Analysis Breaking the concept into component parts Application Demonstrating knowledge by applying concept to one’s own life Comprehension Basic understanding of concept (e. g. , providing definitions) Knowledge Simple recitation of information
Interaction Language facilitates the shared experience necessary for building cognitive process
Classroom Talk Math Time: If Mrs. Jones talked 70% of the time and called on each of her 28 students once during sixth period, approximately how long did each student speak today? Classroom Talk Teacher talk 30% 70% Student talk
Benefits to having students talk to one another: • • Deeper understanding of the text Oral language development Brain stimulation Increased motivation Reduced risk More processing time Increased attention
Interaction Frequent Opportunities for Interaction Group Configurations Sufficient Wait Time Clarify Concepts In L 1
Interaction Features Group Configuration Consider language ability Recommendation is 2 groupings per lesson or activity Wait time Sufficient and consistently provided Pause to let process Clarify Key Concepts In L 1 Scaffold as needed with aide, peer, or L 1 text
Interaction Types of Interaction Teacher/Student Interaction *Support Instructional Conversation Cooperative Learning Groups *Support Content and Language Objectives of the lesson *Build BICS/CALPS Student/Text Interaction *Support Comprehension i. e. – Leveled Text, Cornell Notes, Tiered Questions, Journals, etc…
Interaction and Cooperative Learning http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Gj. Or. FN 6 PEDg Mary. Ellen Vogt explains why it is necessary for teachers to include multiple opportunities for students to interact with each other during a lesson
Instructional Conversation Instructional Elements Conversational Elements
Comparison Direct Instruction • Teacher models exact, specific answers • Focus on specific skills encouraged • Step-by-step systematic instruction • Teacher-centered • Guided and independent practice following instruction • Limited student talk • No extensive discussion • Goal is mastery after each step • Check for understanding • • • Instructional Conversation Teacher facilitates Draw from prior background knowledge Many different ideas Builds on information provided by students More student involvement Establish common foundation for understanding Connected discourse Extensive discussion Fewer “black-and-white” responses Guided understanding
Inside-Outside Circle *Students sit in concentric circles facing each other. *Students in the outside circle ask questions; those in the inside circle answer. *On a signal, students rotate to create new partnerships. *On another signal, students trade inside/outside roles Think-Pair-Share Best if used at least once a week *Students think about a topic suggested by the teacher. *Pairs discuss topic with the class. *Students individually share information from their discussions with the class. Cooperative Learning Groups Corners Jigsaw *Corners (areas of classroom) are designated for focused discussion (four aspects of a topic) Group students evenly into “expert” groups. *Expert groups study one topic or aspect of a topic in depth. *Students individually think about the topic for a short time. *Students form a group in the corner of their choice and discuss the topic. *At least one student from each corner shares about the corner discussion. 3 to 4 members per group *Regroup students so that each new group has at least one member from each expert group. *Experts report on their study. *Other students learn from the experts.
Cornell Two-Column Notes Student/ Text Interaction Vocabulary or Concept Important Details Summary Written by Student http: //coe. jmu. edu/learningtoolbox/cornellnotes 1. html
Interaction Engagement Learning
1. Pick one strategy from your booklet to present to the group. 2. Use language and content objectives. 3. We must know what level of English proficiency the strategy is being used for.
Practice and Application
Practice and Application • All students should engage in meaningful practice of newly learned concepts. • If ELs practice and apply new knowledge soon after learning it and engage collaboratively with others while using language, they are more likely to remember the concepts. • Meaningful practice also allows teachers the opportunity to observe the extent to which English learners understand new information and concepts. • In order for ELs to develop English proficiency, (SIOP pg. 171)
Practice/Application New Language and Content Knowledge Presented in Lesson Hands-on Practice with New Knowledge Application of Content and Language Knowledge in New Ways Integration of All Language Skills
Practice and Application Features New language and content knowledge presented in lesson – consider the structure of tasks and degree of difficulty Hands-on materials and/or manipulatives – provided for students to practice using new content knowledge Apply content and language knowledge – activities provided for students in the classroom Activities integrate all language skills – (i. e. , reading, writing, listening, and speaking)
Practice and Application Practice with hands-on Practice with activities to material & manipulatives apply content and language for new content knowledge • • Organized Created Counted Classified Stacked Experimented with Rearranged Dismantled • • • Clustering Graphic organizers Solving problems in groups Writing in journal Engaging in discussion circles Practice/application should include reading, listening, speaking and writing • Helps with learning styles • Some students will reach written language before oral • Encourages practice We want the abstract to be as concrete as it can be!
Main Points and Features • Goal: Mastery of content and language objectives by all students • Content and language objectives are supported by lesson delivery • Students are engaged throughout the lesson • Monitor and adjust pacing during the lesson
Lesson Delivery Planning Lessons Enacting Lessons Support Content and Language Objectives during Lessons Promote Engagement Pace Lesson Appropriately Making Content Comprehensible for ELL, p. 152
Content Objective • Stated orally and displayed for all to see • Written in student-friendly terms • Allows students to know the direction of the lesson and help them stay on task • Serves as a reminder of the focus of the lesson and provides structure to classroom procedures • Serves to evaluate the extent to which the lesson delivery supported the content objectives • Reviewed throughout the lesson • Clearly supported by lesson delivery
Language Objective • • • Stated orally and displayed for all to see Written in student-friendly terms Addressed explicitly during instruction Reviewed throughout the lesson Clearly supported by lesson delivery
Student Engagement • Engaged 90% to 100% of the class period • Students who are engaged are: – Paying attention – On task – Following the lesson – Responding to teacher direction – Performing activities as expected
Engagement Example: Response Cards • Allow students to respond nonverbally as they become more proficient • Provide teacher with immediate feedback about how well students comprehend the lesson content • Students have their answers validated immediately 99 Ideas and Activities for Teaching ELL with the SIOP Model, p. 168
Pacing of the Lesson • Pacing refers to the rate at which information is presented during a lesson – Not too quickly, yet brisk enough to keep students’ interest • Depends on the lesson’s content • Depends on the students’ background knowledge • Teacher must be familiar with students’ skills • Pacing must be appropriate to students’ ability levels
What component directly affects lesson delivery? Careful Lesson Preparation Lesson LO Effective Lesson Delivery CO Support CO and LO Appropriate Content Concepts Supplementary Materials Adaptation Of Content Meaningful Activities Student Engagement Pace Lesson
Review and Assessment
Review and Assessment: Main Points and Features • • • Goal: Know whether students are making progress toward meeting the content and language objectives Review key vocabulary throughout the lesson Review key content concepts throughout the lesson Provide regular feedback to students on their output: – Validate student responses with specific information – Repeat correct answers in order to model appropriate English pronunciation and inflection – Extend student responses by providing additional information – Convey acceptance and patience through facial expressions and body language – Provide opportunities for students to give feedback to each other through a variety of interactive activities Assess student comprehension and learning of all lesson objectives throughout the lesson
Review and Assessment Review Lesson Objectives Key vocabulary Key content concepts Assess Lesson Objectives Regular feedback on student output Assess student comprehension of objectives Teaching Scenarios Mr. Tran Mr. Hughell Miss Johnston Making Content Comprehensible for ELL, p. 166
Review Key Vocabulary • Review periodically throughout the lesson and at the end of the lesson • Multiple exposure to new terminology builds familiarity, confidence, and English proficiency – Draw attention to tense, parts of speech, and sentence structure – Paraphrase. For example, “The townspeople were pacifists, those who would not fight in a war. ” – Use semantic maps – Use non-linguistic representation – Use Pictionary and charade-like games
Review Key Content Concepts • Review periodically throughout the lesson and at the end of the lesson • Understandings are scaffolded when you stop and briefly summarize. For example, “Up to this point, we learned that little was known about Mummy 1770 until it was donated to the museum. After the scientists completed the autopsy, they discovered three important things. Who remembers what they were? ” • Reviewing helps students assess their own understanding and clarify misconceptions • Students’ responses to review should guide your decisions about what to do next, such as additional reteaching and assessing
Feedback • Corrects misconceptions and misunderstandings • When it is supportive and validating, feedback helps support students’ proficiency in English. For example, “Yes, you’re correct, the scientists were confused by what they thought was a baby’s skull next to the mummy” • May be provided orally, in writing, or through facial expression and body language • Students can provide feedback to one another
Assessment of Student Comprehension and Learning • • • Ongoing Throughout the lesson Linked to instruction Targets the lesson objectives Used to determine whether it is appropriate to move on or to review and re-teach
Types of Assessments • Informal assessment: involves on-the-spot, ongoing opportunities for determining the extent to which students learn content. For example: – Verbal checks for understanding – Teacher observations – Anecdotal reports – Quick-writes – Teacher-created assessments
Types of Assessments • Authentic assessments: real-life applications in which students are engaged in meaningful tasks that take place in real-life contexts. It is multidimensional because teachers use different ways of determining student performance. – Videos – Written pieces – Interviews – Observations – Creative work and art – Discussion – Performance – Oral group responses
Effective Teaching Cycle for English Learners Develop Lesson Using Assessment, Standards, and SIOP Model RETEACH Teach Lesson Assess Student Comprehension and Student Work Make Adjustments to Improve Student Comprehension Review Key Concepts and Vocabulary Making Content Comprehensible for ELL, p. 169
Review and Assessment Video: Discussion Questions • How did Ms. Phillips specifically connect the previous day’s lesson review to this lesson? How did this activity provide her with assessment information about what the students had learned and the degree to which they are ready to move on? • List the ways Ms. Phillips reviewed and assessed her students’ understandings and vocabulary knowledge throughout the lesson. If you were to have a different proportion of English learners in your class, which of the review and assessment techniques on your list would still be applicable? Which, if any, might you need to revise? SIOP Training Manual, Reproducible 10. 5
Activity: Simultaneous Round Table • Students review what they have learned about a topic by reading their peers’ thoughts and adding their own ideas • Students review individually and with the support of their team members 99 Ideas and Activities for Teaching ELL with the SIOP Model, p. 178.
SIOP Components • • Lesson Preparation Building Background Comprehensible Input Strategies Interaction Practice and Application Lesson Delivery Review and Assessment
Frame the Lesson Where does SIOP fit?
Language Acquisition Research Law ELPS Lesson Delivery Review & Assessment Sheltered Instruction Practice & Application SIOP Model Lesson Preparation Building Background Interaction Strategies Comprehensible Input
You are now SIOP trained. Congratulations! We look forward to supporting you as you implement all that you’ve learned!