- Slides: 33
Waste Storage Ø Including the waste handling, processing, separation and storage. Ø The type of container use is highly variable depend on the amount of waste generated, the frequency of collection and whether waste separation is mandated. Ø The most commonly used in Malaysia are the plastic container. Ø Daily collection 7 – 11 litres Ø Weekly collection 20 – 30 litres
WASTE HANDLING ØRefer to the activities associated with managing solid waste until they are place in the containers used for storage. ØThe activities will vary depending on: Ø Type of waste materials are separated Ø Type of collection service ØMay also requires to move the loaded containers to the collection point.
Residential dwellings ØThree categories most often used: Ø Low-rise dwelling Ø Under 4 stories Ø Single family detached Ø Single family attach Ø multifamily
Cont’…. Ø Tenants are responsible for placing the containers of solid waste around their dwelling. Ø Type of container used depend on whether waste separation is mandated. Ø Home owner will placed the containers filled with wastes to the street curb.
Ø Medium-rise Ø From 4 to 7 stories Ø Handling methods for Low- and medium-rise Apartment depending on the waste storage location and collection method. Ø Location of storage include basement storage, outdoor storage, occasionally, compactor storage.
Ø High-rise Ø Over Ø The 7 stories most common methods are: Ø Waste are pick up by building maintenance personnel Ø Waste are taken to the basement/service area by tenants Ø Waste are placed by the tenants in vertical chute.
Cont’…. ØWaste discharged in chutes are collected in large containers. ØThe chutes are available in diameter from 12 to 36 inches (0. 3 m to 0. 9 m) and the most common diameter is 24 inches (0. 6 m). ØThe use of disinfection and sanitizing unit as recommended.
Separation ØSeparation of waste components including: Ø Paper Ø Cardboard Ø Aluminum can Ø Glass Ø plastic containers
Cont’…. Factors that must be consider in the onsite storage include Ø The effects of storage on the waste components. Ø The type container to be used Ø The container location Ø Public health and aesthetics.
Cont’…. Effects of storage on the waste components. ØEffects of storing wastes include: Ø Biological decomposition Ø Waste will immediately start to undergo microbiological decomposition (putrefaction) Ø If waste are allowed in storage containers for extended period of time, flies will start to breed and odors compounds can develop.
Cont’…. Ø The absorption of fluids Ø Components of solid waste have differing initial moisture contents, re-equilibration take place. Ø The moisture will become distributed throughout the waste. Ø The degree of absorption depend on the length of time. Ø Waste also can absorb water from rainfall that enter into container.
Cont’…. Ø The contamination of waste components Ø Major waste components may be contaminated by small amount of waste. Ø E. g: motor oil, paints, household cleaner. Ø Effect : reduce the value of the individual waste components for recycling.
Types of containers The type and capacities of container used depend on: Ø the characteristics and type of solid waste to be collected. Ø type of collection system. Ø The collection frequency Ø The space available for placement of containers.
Cont’…. Low-rise dwelling (manual curbside collection) ØContainer should be light enough to handle easily. ØInjury to collector have results from handling container that loaded to heavy. ØUpper weight limit between 40 to 65 lb. Ø 30 galvanized metal or plastic container is proven the least expensive of storage for lowrise dwelling.
Cont’…. Ø The choice container materials depend on the preferences to the home-owner. Ø Galvanize metal tend to be noisy when being emptied and can be damage. Ø Some plastic containers tend to crack under ultraviolet ray and the freezing temperature. Ø Temporary and disposal containers are routinely used as temporary – remove along the waste. Ø The problem of temporary containers is difficult to loading them.
Cont’…. ØThe use of all types and different grades of container liners is common. ØA disadvantage in the using of liner, if the waste are to be separated by component or they are to be combusted, has to be break up.
Cont’…. Low-rise dwelling (mechanized curbside) ØThe containers are designed specifically to work with the container-unloading mechanism attach to the collection vehicle. ØThe container size is from about 75 to 120 gallons. 90 gallons container being the most common.
Cont’…. Low- & medium-rise apartment ØThe two most common types have been use are: Ø Individual plastic or galvanized metal Ø Large portable or fix container ØThe container is kept in enclosed areas which easy access to nearby street. ØThe containers are equipped with caster or roller
Cont’…. High-rise apartment ØWhere chutes are available separation storage containers are not used. ØThe most common storage for wastes accumulate from apartment include: Ø Enclosed storage containers or disposal bags Ø Large open-top containers for uncompacted waste, bulky items, Ø Large open-top container for recycle materials.
Cont’’…. Commercial facilities ØTypes of container depend to a large extents the on the methods use of collection ØUsually large open-top containers are used for unseparated waste ØThe use of container equipped with compaction mechanism ØSpecial onsite processing equipment may also be used – recoverable material
Cont’’…. Container storage locations ØDepend on the type of dwelling or commercial and industrial facilities, available space and access to collection service. Residential dwelling Ø Low-rise detached dwellings usually are placed Ø At the sides of rear of the house Ø In alley Ø In or next to the garage
Commercial & industrial facilities Ødepend on the location of available space & service access condition Ølocation & type of containers not own by the commercial or industries Solid waste that Ø The contents of large containers are removed by elevator to the:
Cont’’…. Ø Large storage container Ø Compactors used in conjunction with storage containers Ø Stationary compactors Ø Other processing equipments.
Cont’’…. ØThe older large office & commercial buildings are used inadequate equipment and tend to create handling problem. ØAll of the office paper is now collected for recycle.
Public Health & Aesthetics Public Health ØInfestation of vermin & insects – mechanical vectors ØMost effective control is proper sanitation. Ø Use container with tight lids. Ø The period washing the container Ø Periodic removal biodegradable materials Ø Excellent description of solid waste-disease relationship
Cont’’…. Aesthetics ØRelated to the production of odors & unmaintenance of sanitary condition. ØOdors can be controlled; Ø through the use container with tight lids Ø Reasonable collection frequency. Ø If odors persist, the contents of the container – spray with the masking deodorant Ø To maintain aesthetic condition, the container should scrubbed & wash periodically
Con’t…. The common communal storage methods used in Asian country include: Ø Depot simple enclosure of brick wall Ø low public health aesthetic value Ø Commonly found in developing countries Ø
Con’t…. Ø Enclosure Ø Ø Ø slightly improvised depot within an enclosure around the storage area. Exposed to rain and causes air pollution and odors Not suitable in modern society
Con’t…. Ø Fixed storage bins more appropriate and hygienic Ø Occasionally, an irrseponsible people tend to burn the refuse in the bin. Ø Ø If not emptied regularly become threat to human health.
Con’t…. Ø Portable steel bins Ø commonly Ø Ø used in Malaysia can be easily loaded/unloaded Drum Ø Ø 200 litres drum provided in some cities in Asia
Con’t…. Ø Concrete Ø Ø Ø pipe Section Found in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan Capacity depend on size of pipe scavengers and animal always messing up the bins