STATUS OF EXPLORER AND NAUTILUS Massimo Visco for

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STATUS OF EXPLORER AND NAUTILUS Massimo Visco for ROG Collaboration INFN – LN Frascati,

STATUS OF EXPLORER AND NAUTILUS Massimo Visco for ROG Collaboration INFN – LN Frascati, LN Gran Sasso, Sez. Roma 1, Roma 2 and Genova Universities “La Sapienza” and “Tor Vergata” Rome, L’Aquila, Geneve CNR – IFSI and IFN Roma CERN - Geneve GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

G. W. ANTENNA EXPLORER CERN - GENEVA Bar Al 5056 M = 2270 kg

G. W. ANTENNA EXPLORER CERN - GENEVA Bar Al 5056 M = 2270 kg L = 2. 97 m Ø = 0. 6 m n. A= 915 Hz @ T = 2. 5 K Cosmic ray detector G. W. ANTENNA NAUTILUS LNF - FRASCATI Bar Al 5056 M = 2270 kg L = 2. 91 m Ø = 0. 6 m n. A= 935 Hz T=130 m. K - dilution refrigerator Cosmic ray detector GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

DATA TAKING DURING THE LAST 14 YEARS EXPLORER 1990 91 92 93 94 95

DATA TAKING DURING THE LAST 14 YEARS EXPLORER 1990 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 h from 10 -18 to 4· 10 -19 NAUTILUS 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 h from 10 -18 to 3· 10 -19 GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

EXPLORER STATUS • EXPLORER was upgraded in 1999. After a tune-up period, it has

EXPLORER STATUS • EXPLORER was upgraded in 1999. After a tune-up period, it has been on the air since 2000 with a duty cycle close to 85%, excluding 6 months in 2002 and 3 months at the beginning of 2004. • From March 2004 it has been working with an effective temperature around 4 m. K corresponding to h = 5 · 10 -19. The sensitivity can be increased modifying the electrical field in the transducer. • This year we will not to interrupt the data taking during the winter closure of the CERN. GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

NAUTILUS STATUS • It has worked in the past run from 1999 to March

NAUTILUS STATUS • It has worked in the past run from 1999 to March 2002. The duty-cycle in 2001 was about 80% and the effective temperature smaller then 5 m. K corresponding to h = 6 · 10 -19 • After a hardware upgrade, NAUTILUS has resumed operations in March 2003. In this phase it is working at 3. 5 K with a duty cycle larger then 85 %. The effective temperature is around 1 m. K corresponding to h ~ 3 · 10 -19 • Further improvement is possible changing the experimental parameters. GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

EXPERIMENTAL CONFIGURATION L 0 Li Small gap capacitive transducer Superconducting matching transformer High coupling

EXPERIMENTAL CONFIGURATION L 0 Li Small gap capacitive transducer Superconducting matching transformer High coupling dc-SQUID Al 5056 mt = 0. 75 kg nt= 916 Hz Ct = 11 n. F E = 2. 6 MV/m Lo=2. 86 H Li=0. 8 H K=0. 8 Ms = 10 n. H fn= 3 · 10 -6 Fo/ Hz GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

ROG GROUP TRANSDUCER Gap 10 m 12 cm Teflon insulators Antenna Pb washers •

ROG GROUP TRANSDUCER Gap 10 m 12 cm Teflon insulators Antenna Pb washers • “ROSETTE” SHAPED Resonating disk GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

The transducer mounted on the antenna GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

The transducer mounted on the antenna GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

WIDENING THE BAND Old readout New readout Increasing the Bandwidth of Resonant Gravitational Antennas:

WIDENING THE BAND Old readout New readout Increasing the Bandwidth of Resonant Gravitational Antennas: The Case of Explorer PRL 91, 11 (2003) GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

(-1/2) EXPLORER and NAUTILUS December 11 th, 2004 GWDAW 9 - December 15 th,

(-1/2) EXPLORER and NAUTILUS December 11 th, 2004 GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

DATA TAKING DURING 2004 EXPLORER 5 · 10 -19 NAUTILUS 3· 10 -19 GWDAW

DATA TAKING DURING 2004 EXPLORER 5 · 10 -19 NAUTILUS 3· 10 -19 GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

NAUTILUS OPERATIONS DURING October 2004 Duty Cycle 85 % Liquid Helium Refillings GWDAW 9

NAUTILUS OPERATIONS DURING October 2004 Duty Cycle 85 % Liquid Helium Refillings GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

EXPLORER OPERATIONS DURING October 2004 Liquid Nitrogen Refilling Liquid Helium Refillings Duty Cycle 85

EXPLORER OPERATIONS DURING October 2004 Liquid Nitrogen Refilling Liquid Helium Refillings Duty Cycle 85 % GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

GAUSSIANITY EXPLORER NAUTILUS 12 hours of data on Sept 4 th, 2004 GWDAW 9

GAUSSIANITY EXPLORER NAUTILUS 12 hours of data on Sept 4 th, 2004 GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

SEARCH FOR VARIOUS SOURCES • CONTINUOUS: – From the GC, 95. 7 days EXPLORER

SEARCH FOR VARIOUS SOURCES • CONTINUOUS: – From the GC, 95. 7 days EXPLORER hc = 3 • 10– 24 - frequency interval 921. 32 921. 38 Hz (P. Astone et al. Phys. Rev. D 65, 022001, 2002 ) – From all the Sky, 2 days EXPLORER hc = 2 • 10– 23 - frequency interval 921. 00 921. 76 Hz (P. Astone et al. , proceedings GWDAW 2002 – ROG – A. Krolak and collab. ) – New analysis in progress • STOCHASTIC SOURCES: – Crosscorrelation of EXPLORER and NAUTILUS data over 10 hours in a band of 0. 1 Hz in 1997 GW(920. 2 Hz) < 60. (P. Astone, et al. , Astron. and Astrophys, 351, 811 -814, (1999). ) – The common bandwidth now can reach 10 Hz: a new upper limit 1 is possible GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

 • BURST SIGNALS: GW detectors • Together with the other detectors of IGEC

• BURST SIGNALS: GW detectors • Together with the other detectors of IGEC collaboration: no GW bursts above h 2 10 -18 corresponding to 0. 01 M⊙ in the GC (International Gravitationl Event Collaboration, Phys. Rev. D 68, 022001 (2003)). • P. Astone et al. : “Study of coincidence between resonant gravitational wave detectors”, Classical and Quantum Gravity, 18, 243 -251, (2001). • P. Astone et al. : “Study of the coincidences between the gravitational wave detectors EXPLORER and NAUTILUS in 2001”, Classical and Quantum Gravity 19, 5449 -5463 (2002). • The analysis of the data taken by the two experiments during 2003 and 2004 is in progress. The data are available for coincidence analysis with the other experiments. GW - ray detectors • Analysis over 47 GRB (Beppo. SAX) (95% probability): no signals with h>6. 5· 10 -19 for a time delay within 5 s, and with h>1. 2· 10 -18 for a time delay within 400 s. (P. Astone et al, Physical Review D, 66, 2002 102002). • Analysis of 387 GRB (Beppo. SAX and BATSE) upper bound of h=2. 5· 10 -19 in a time window of 10 s (astro-ph/0408544) GW – cosmic ray detectors • Search for small signals (P. Astone et al. , Physical Review Letter, 84, (2000)14 -17) • Detection of unexpected large signals (P. Astone et al, Phys. Letters B 499, Feb 2001 16 -22) (P. Astone et al, Physics Letters B 540 179 -184 (2002)). GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

Correlation between cosmic rays and signals in the antennas Ev/day integral distribution 100 Expected

Correlation between cosmic rays and signals in the antennas Ev/day integral distribution 100 Expected Explorer 2002 >600 P m 2 Explorer 2003 Nautilus 1998 Nautilus 2000 -2001 Nautilus 2000 T<1 K Nautilus 2003 10 1 0. 01 0. 001 0. 1 1 Events amplitude - Sqrt(K) 10 GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

TIME RESOLUTION AND EVENTS FROM COSMIC RAYS - EXPLORER 2003 =5. 7 ms Selection

TIME RESOLUTION AND EVENTS FROM COSMIC RAYS - EXPLORER 2003 =5. 7 ms Selection of small events 4

MINIGRAIL – NEW RUN November 2004 Ø 68 cm - 1. 4 ton 3

MINIGRAIL – NEW RUN November 2004 Ø 68 cm - 1. 4 ton 3 k. Hz T=72 m. K New cryogenic run with 3 capacitive transducers and SQUID read-out. GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

Strain sensitivity (Hz)-1/2 MINIGRAIL GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004

Strain sensitivity (Hz)-1/2 MINIGRAIL GWDAW 9 - December 15 th, 2004