Status and needs Zhibin Zhang Yanhao Zhang zhazhb163

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Status and needs Zhibin Zhang, Yanhao Zhang zhazhb@163. com Shandong Jinazhu University

Status and needs Zhibin Zhang, Yanhao Zhang [email protected] com Shandong Jinazhu University

CONTENT § National, regional and international status of wastewater treatment § Challenges with wastewater:

CONTENT § National, regional and international status of wastewater treatment § Challenges with wastewater: environmental, health and aesthetic aspects § Legal aspects: national, regional and international practices Status and needs

1. National, regional and international status of wastewater treatment n Basic theory on the

1. National, regional and international status of wastewater treatment n Basic theory on the wastewater treatment n Basic process on the wastewater treatment Status and needs

Basic theory on the wastewater treatment a. Physical purification Dilution l Convection : Movement

Basic theory on the wastewater treatment a. Physical purification Dilution l Convection : Movement of pollutants in the direction of water flow l Blend l Precipitate l volatilization l Status and needs

 Status and needs

Status and needs

b. Chemical cleaning l Oxidation reduction l Acid base reaction l Adsorption and condensation

b. Chemical cleaning l Oxidation reduction l Acid base reaction l Adsorption and condensation c. Biological degradation l Aerobic l Anaerobic l Anoxic Status and needs

 Status and needs

Status and needs

 Status and needs

Status and needs

d. Phelps equation Two hypotheses: l The degradation rate of organic matter is only

d. Phelps equation Two hypotheses: l The degradation rate of organic matter is only related to the concentration of organic matter. l Only aerobic microorganisms are involved, by atmospheric oxygen Status and needs

Oxygen consumption kinetics of organic compounds L-------Organic matter concentration k 1 ------Oxygen consumption rate

Oxygen consumption kinetics of organic compounds L-------Organic matter concentration k 1 ------Oxygen consumption rate constant Status and needs

Kinetics of the change of dissolved oxygen D-------Oxygen deficiency D=C 0 -Cx k 2

Kinetics of the change of dissolved oxygen D-------Oxygen deficiency D=C 0 -Cx k 2 ------Oxygen recovery rate constant Phelps equation Time to reach the point of oxygen Status and needs

BOD and DO (mg/L ) Clean Zone Contaminated Zone sewage Status and needs Time

BOD and DO (mg/L ) Clean Zone Contaminated Zone sewage Status and needs Time Recovery zone Clean Zone

Basic process on the municipal wastewater treatment Status and needs

Basic process on the municipal wastewater treatment Status and needs

 Status and needs

Status and needs

 Efficiency of treatment stages Process Primary method Treatment efficiency(%) SS BOD 5 Precipitation

Efficiency of treatment stages Process Primary method Treatment efficiency(%) SS BOD 5 Precipitation method Precipitation (natural precipitation) 40~ 55 20~ 30 Biological membrane method Primary sedimentation, biological membrane method, two precipitation 60~ 90 65~ 90 Activated sludge process Initial sedimentation, biological reaction tank, two precipitation 70~ 90 65~ 95 Secondary Status and needs Main process

2. Challenges with wastewater: environmental, health and aesthetic aspects • Inorganic pollutant • Organic

2. Challenges with wastewater: environmental, health and aesthetic aspects • Inorganic pollutant • Organic pollutant Status and needs

Inorganic pollution l Acid and alkali pollution: industrial wastewater, acid rain l Nitrogen and

Inorganic pollution l Acid and alkali pollution: industrial wastewater, acid rain l Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution: eutrophicaiton l Sulfate and sulfide pollution l Chloride contamination l Heavy metal pollution Status and needs

 • The harm of eutrophication ØWater quality becomes muddy ØReduction of dissolved oxygen

• The harm of eutrophication ØWater quality becomes muddy ØReduction of dissolved oxygen ØAlgal toxins ØIncrease color, smell ØGeneration of precursor ØIncrease the cost of water supply plant ØDestruction of aquatic ecology Status and needs

Water shortage in Wuxi city in 2007 Because of Taihu eutrophicaiton Status and needs

Water shortage in Wuxi city in 2007 Because of Taihu eutrophicaiton Status and needs

Polar bear with green fur Status and needs

Polar bear with green fur Status and needs

Organic pollution l Oil pollution l Phenol pollution l Surface active agent pollution Status

Organic pollution l Oil pollution l Phenol pollution l Surface active agent pollution Status and needs

3. Legal aspects: national, regional and international practices l l l China Germany Norway

3. Legal aspects: national, regional and international practices l l l China Germany Norway Poland Sri Lanka Ukraine Status and needs

China Wastewater pollutant discharge standards are based on the quality standards of water environment.

China Wastewater pollutant discharge standards are based on the quality standards of water environment. “Surface water environmental quality standards(GB 3838 -2002)”,It divides the waters into five categories. Class I, mainly applied to the source of water,National Nature Reserve Class II, mainly used in surface water source protection area Class III, mainly applicable to the two level of protection of surface water,fishery waters and swimming areas. Class IV, mainly applicable to general industrial water and recreational water. Class V, mainly applicable to agricultural water district and the general landscape requirements of water Status and needs

 Status and needs

Status and needs

 Water pollutant discharge standards are also classified into national standards and local standards

Water pollutant discharge standards are also classified into national standards and local standards in China. l National standards l Local standards Status and needs

Related national municipalwastewater discharge standards (1)Pollutant discharge standard of urban sewage treatment plant GB

Related national municipalwastewater discharge standards (1)Pollutant discharge standard of urban sewage treatment plant GB 18918 -2002) (2)Classification of urban sewage recycling and utilization GB/T 18919 -2002 (3)The city service water quality and city wastewater reclamation GB/T 18920 -2002 (4)Urban sewage regeneration and utilization of landscape water quality GB/T 18921 -2002 (5)Municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse of groundwater recharge GB/T 19772 -2005 (6)Urban sewage recycling and utilization of industrial water quality GB/T 19923 -2005 (7)Water quality standard for landscape and recreation GB 12941 -91 (8)Water quality standard of reclaimed water reuse for landscape water body CJ/T 952000 (9)Water quality control standard of reclaimed water used as cooling water GB 503352002 (10)Recommended water quality standards for reclaimed water used as cooling water CECS 61: 94 Status and needs

Related local wastewater discharge standards Shandong Province (1) Comprehensive discharge standard of water pollutants

Related local wastewater discharge standards Shandong Province (1) Comprehensive discharge standard of water pollutants in the peninsula of Shandong Province(DB 37/676 -2007)2008 -04 -30 (2) Standard for comprehensive discharge of water pollutants in Haihe River Basin of Shandong Province (DB 37/675 -2007)2008 -04 -30 (3) Shandong province water pollutants discharge standard of Xiaoqing River Basin (DB 37/656-2006)2008 -04 -30 (4)Comprehensive discharge standard of water pollutants along the line of the south to North Water Transfer in Shandong Province (DB 37/ 599- 2006)2008 -04 -30 Status and needs

Germany Status and needs

Germany Status and needs

Norway Status and needs

Norway Status and needs

Poland Status and needs

Poland Status and needs

Sri Lanka Status and needs

Sri Lanka Status and needs

Ukraine Status and needs

Ukraine Status and needs