 # Static Electricity Electric Forces Electric Fields Static Electricity

• Slides: 16 Static Electricity, Electric Forces, Electric Fields Static Electricity • Static Electricity involves charges “at rest”. • Fundamental Rule of Charge – Opposite charges attract – Like charges repel • 3 methods of charging : friction, conduction, & induction Conductors vs Insulators • Conductors allow electrons to move freely, Insulators do not! • Examples of conductors are copper, aluminum, and other metals • Examples of insulators are rubber, plastic, wood, styrofoam, and air Methods of Charging • Charging by friction – two neutral objects are rubbed together and become oppositely charged ( the object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged and the one that loses electrons becomes positively charged) • Charging by conduction – a charged object touches a neutral object so charges are transferred between objects until they reach charge equilibrium, ie. have equal charge (the neutral object gets the same charge) • Charging by induction – a charged object is brought near but not touching a neutral object ( the neutral object gets a temporary charge separation – gets opposite charge near the charged object) Induction and Grounding • If grounding is used along with induction, the neutral object will become permanently charged. It will have a charge opposite that of the charging object. • This is done by grounding the neutral object on the side opposite the charging object. • Grounding is when a path is provided for the excess charge to flow into or out of the ground. Electric Forces Given 2 charges of magnitude q 1 & q 2 separated by a distance d, the magnitude of the force that each of the charges exerts on the other is calculated using Coulomb’s Law. The forces can be attractive or repulsive and must be equal and opposite … Newton’s 3 rd Law! Coulomb’s Law: F q 1 q 2 + F - F d + + q 1 q 2 F FE = electrostatic force, Newtons (N) k = electric or Coulomb’s constant = 9 x 109 Nm 2/C 2 q 1 = charge of the first object, C q 2 = charge of the second object, C d = distance between the two charges (center to center), m Electric Charges • • Electrons have a negative charge Protons have a positive charge Charge is measured in “coulombs” “qo” or “q” in an equation is used for charge • One electron has a charge of -1. 6 x 10 -19 C • One proton has a charge of +1. 6 x 10 -19 C Electric Fields • Electric fields are the “energy fields” that surround any charged particle” • Any charge placed in this field will experience a force. • Electric fields are vectors (magnitude & direction). • The direction of an electric field is defined by the direction of the force on a tiny “+” test charge placed in that field. Thus electric fields are always in a direction that is away from “+” and toward “-”. • Electric Field strength is the force per unit charge and is measured in units of N/C (Newtons per Coulomb) E = Electric Field Strength, N/C F = Electrostatic Force, N qo = Charge placed in the electric field, C Electric Field around a Charge Field around a Negative charge Field around a Positive charge - + Note - In the formulas on the previous slide and on the following slides q 0 and q are described as follows: q = charge of the object causing the electric field, C qo = test charge or the charge of the object placed in the field, C Electric Potential Difference • Electric Potential Difference is the change in potential energy per unit charge at a given point due to an electric field. • Units: Volts (1 volt = 1 Joule per Coulomb) • Potential Difference is required to make current flow. ΔV = Electric Potential Difference, Volts ΔPE =change in electric potential energy, J qo= charge placed in an electric field, C Note: 1 Volt = 1 Joule / Coulomb Work done on a charge So: • W- the work required to move a charge through a potential difference, Joules (J) • - magnitude of the charge that is being moved through the field, Coulombs (C) • V - potential difference, Volts (V) Capacitor – a device used to store charge. Example of a common simple capacitor: 2 oppositely charged plates + - • increase the size of the plates + - • decrease the plate separation + - • increase the voltage of the battery + - battery E To get more stored charge: + - Note: This is an example of a uniform electric field. Insulator such as air Capacitance – the ability of a conductor to store energy in the form of electrically separated charges C = Capacitance, Farads (F) Q = charge on one plate, C ∆V = Potential difference, V Note: 1 Farad = 1 Coulomb / Volt Also, a Farad is a very large unit so usually use μF or p. F. (micro = μ = 10 -6, nano = n = 10 -9, pico = p = 10 -12) Electric Potential Difference of a charge moving in a uniform electric field ∆V = electric potential difference, V E = electric field strength, V/m or N/C d = displacement moved along the field lines, m Note: It must be a uniform electric field! Also there is no ∆PE and thus no ∆V if displacement is perpendicular to the electric field (ie same distance from the charge causing the field). Old Formulas and Constants: • • • W = Fd F = ma Mass of electron = 9. 109 x 10 -31 kg Mass of proton = 1. 673 x 10 -27 kg Charge of an electron = -1. 6 x 10 -19 C Electric or Coulomb’s constant = 9 x 109 Nm 2/C 2