# STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Matter

• Slides: 31

STATES OF MATTER • The Four States of Matter • Solid • Liquid • Gas • Plasma • Four States

STATES OF MATTER Ø Based upon particle arrangement Ø Based upon energy of particles Ø Based upon distance between particles

Kinetic Theory of Matter is made up of particles which are in continual random motion.

STATES OF MATTER SOLIDS • Particles of solids are tightly packed, vibrating about a fixed position. • Solids have a definite shape and a definite volume. Heat

STATES OF MATTER LIQUID § Particles of liquids are tightly packed, but are far enough apart to slide over one another. § Liquids have an indefinite shape and a definite volume. Heat

STATES OF MATTER GAS § Particles of gases are very far apart and move freely. § Gases have an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. Heat

PHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Solid to liquid Term for Phase Change Melting Liquid to Freezing solid Heat Movement During Phase Change Heat goes into the solid as it melts. Heat leaves the liquid as it freezes.

PHASE CHANGES Description of Phase Change Liquid to gas Term for Phase Change Vaporization, which includes Heat goes into the boiling and liquid as it vaporizes. evaporation Gas to liquid Condensation Solid to gas Heat Movement During Phase Change Sublimation Heat leaves the gas as it condenses. Heat goes into the solid as it sublimates.

Two states of matter they didn’t teach you about in school… Until Now!

But what happens if you raise the temperature to super-high levels… between 1000°C and 1, 000, 000°C ? Will everything just be a gas?

NO! If the gas is made up of particles which carry an electric charge (“ionized particles”), but the entire gas as a whole has no electric charge, and if the density is not too high, then we can get The 4 th state of matter: PLASMA

STATES OF MATTER PLASMA § A plasma is an ionized gas. § A plasma is a very good conductor of electricity and is affected by magnetic fields. § Plasmas, like gases • Plasma is the have an indefinite common state shape and an of matter indefinite volume.

STATES OF MATTER SOLID Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but do not move from place to place LIQUID Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other GAS Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrate and move freely at high speeds PLASMA Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles

Some places where plasmas are found… 1. Flames

2. Lightning

3. Aurora (Northern Lights)

The Sun is an example of a star in its plasma state

5. Stars make up 99% of the total matter in the Universe. Therefore, 99% of everything that exists in the entire Universe is in the plasma state.

4. Neon lights

6. Clouds of gas and dust around stars 6

So now we know all about four states of matter: SOLIDS Lower Temperature LIQUIDS GASES PLASMAS (only for low density ionized gases) Higher Temperature

But now what happens if you lower the temperature way, down to 100 nano degrees above “Absolute Zero” (-273°C) Will everything just be a frozen solid?

Not Necessarily! In 1924 (82 years ago), two scientists, Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose predicted a 5 th state of matter which would occur at very low temperatures. Einstein Bose +

Finally, in 1995 (only 11 years ago!), Wolfgang Ketterle and his team of graduate students (like me) discovered the 5 th state of matter for the first time. Ketterle and his students The 5 th state of matter: Bose-Einstein Condensate

In a Bose-Einstein condensate, atoms can no longer bounce around as individuals. Instead they must all act in exactly the same way, and you can no longer tell them apart!

Here is a picture a computer took of Bose-Einstein Condensation The big peak happens when all the atoms act exactly the same way! (We can’t see Bose-Einstein condensation with our eyes because the atoms are too small)

Some other computer images of Bose-Einstein Condensates…

To really understand Bose -Einstein condensate you need to know Quantum Physics

In 2002, Ketterle and two other scientists received the highest award in science for discovering Bose-Einstein condensate: The Nobel Prize

The five states of matter: BOSEEINSTEIN CONDENSATE Lower Temperature PLASMAS SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES (only for low density ionized gases) Higher Temperature