# States of Matter anything that has mass and

• Slides: 24

States of Matter - anything that has mass and volume

States of Matter aka PHASES n There are 5 states of matter – – – n Liquid Solid Gas Plasma Bose-Einstein Condensates The three most familiar are – Liquds – Solids – Gasses n The state of a sample of matter depends on its TEMPERATURE

Solids n Has DEFINATE shape and volume – Shape and volume do NOT change when put in different containers n Particles are very close to each other n Two types of solids – Crystalline – Noncrystalline

Crystalline Solids n Crystals: arrangements of particles in repeating geometric patterns n Particles vibrate in fixed positions n Very rigid and have specific melting points n EX: snowflake is a crystal of water, ice, salt

Noncrystalline (Amorphous) Solids n Particles are NOT arranged in crystal patterns. – Noncrystalline or amorphous n Solids NOT as rigid as crystalline solids. It is easier to change shape. n As you heat them gradually melt n EX: glass, plastics, some kinds of waxes

Liquids n Have definite volume but not shape (take shape of their containers) n Flows and takes the shape of its container n Particles are farther apart than solids and move faster n Particles close together but have enough KINETIC ENERGY to move over and around each other – Allows liquids to flow and take shape of its container

Graduated Cylinder Liquids Beaker Flask Changes shape, but is always 45 m. L

Liquids n Liquids will flow and can be described by viscosity n Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. Thicker liquids are more viscous than thinner liquids

Gases n NO definite shape OR volume n Take shape and volume of their containers n Particles are far apart and move fast n Particles are always bumping into each other and bouncing away n As they hit the sides of their container, they exert pressure n As you heat a gas, the particles move faster and have more collisions and the pressure increases

Solids, Liquids, Gases

Plasma n Very high energy, electrically charged gas – Positively and negatively charged n It makes up most of the matter in the universe – Sun and other stars are made of plasma n As matter is heated to very high temps. The particle begin to collide violently & as a result the particles break up into smaller pieces – These pieces are electrically charged

Plasma n EX: light from sun lightning fluorescent light - electricity causes particles of mercury gas inside tube to form plasma

Bose-Einstein Condensates n Extremely low temperature fluids n Have properties that are not completely understood, such as spontaneously flowing out of their containers n Exist only at temperatures close to absolute zero 0 K or -273°C

State Changes n During a state change, the temperature stops changing. n When the state change is complete, the temperature will change again

Gas Laws n Boyles Law – When you increase the pressure on a gas, the volume decreases – this is an inverse relationship. As one factor increases, the other one decreases – Formula: § P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

Boyles Law Example n The pressure on a balloon is 50 Pascals and its volume is 200 cm 3. If the pressure is increased to 75 Pascals, what is the new volume of the balloon? P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 (50 Pa)(200 cm 3) = (75 Pa) V 2 3 133 cm = V 2

Evaporation n Occurs when a few particles at the surface of a liquid escape and turn into a gas. When they escape, they take heat with them – Example § Sweat

Boiling n Occurs when the entire liquid starts changing into a gas, not just at the surface. n You will see bubbles

Sublimation n Occurs when a solid turns into a gas without going through the liquid phase first n Examples – Dry ice – Moth balls – Solid room deodorizers

State Change Graph

Charles Law n As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume also increases n This is a direct relationship. As one factor increases, the other one also increases. n As you heat a gas, it expands n Formula: V 1 = V 2 T 1 T 2

Charles Law Practice n. When the temperature of a gas is 3 120°C, its volume is 40 cm. What is its volume if the temperature is increased to 150°C? Solution: