- Slides: 24
State ecological monitoring system of Moscow-City
The metrpolitan area of Moscow is 1080 km 2 • • • 4 thousands industrial enterprises 71 industrial zone 14 large energy stations 63 small energy stations 1 thousand of boilers
MAJOR POLLUTORS The total volume of airborn emissions is 1, 084 mln. tons in 2003 The transport pollution is 900 th. tons (83%) transportation – 2, 6 mln units to 2010 – increase to 3, 3 mln units the fuel consumed – 4, 290 mln. tons The industrial pollution – 184 th. tons (17%)
State Environmental Institute "MOSECOMONITORING“ SEI "MOSECOMONITORING“ was founded as information & analytical Environmental Center according to the Government of Moscow-City decree in March 2001 Functions: - Accumulating environment information, - Carrying out analysis of current situation, - Identify the regularity, factors and trends increased pollution of natural systems in the City, - Carrying out prognostic assessments В соответствии с ППМ от 27. 03. 2001 г. № 284 «О создании ГПУ «Мосэкомониторинг» , учреждение выполняет функции информационно-аналитического центра городской системы экологического мониторинга. Здесь накапливается информация, ведётся анализ текущей ситуации, выявление закономерностей, причин, тенденций повышенного загрязнения природных сред в городе, выполняются прогнозные оценки.
Development of the State ecological monitoring system of Moscow-City year Number of automatic stations for air pollution monitoring 1993 - 1996 3 1996 – 1998 7 1999 8 2001 11 2003 32 Types of territories where Automatic stations for air pollution control are situated Description Number of Stations (2004) pavements 8 Center of City Quarters, which are removed from immediate impact of transport 6 Periphery Disposition on territory of dwelling quarter on outskirts of City 16 City background Disposition on the City border far from pollution sources 2 Nearby highways
The network of automatic stations of atmosphere pollution control 1. Central Administrative district. 2. North-West Administrative district 3. North Administrative district 4. North-East Administrative district 5. East Administrative district 6. South-East Administrative district 7. South Administrative district 8. South-West Administrative district 9. West Administrative district 10. Administrative district of Zelenograd
Typical objectives of environmental monitoring Objectives of Monitoring Analysis of effectiveness of objectives achievement in Moscow To control forcomplience to the State & international standards + Inform of population on ambient air quality & development of warning systems about dramatic increase of pollution level + Obtain the initial data, that serve as basis for securing of management of ambient air quality & planning of traffic systems + Determination of population exposure & carry out of assessment of impact to population + Identify the pollution sources & their contributions + Identify the factors, that are threat for the health + Creation & assessment of application of calculation models of geographic information systems + Development of policy & organization of priority tasks in management sphere +
Assessment of volume & dynamics of emission Methods: • Instrumental measurements (carry out at identical or similar source of emission) • calculation method • from database according to factor of emission
Calculation of dispersion Use computed programs corresponding to next minimal requirements: • provide opportunity to carry out calculations which results are compare with air quality standard • provide opportunity to graphically interprete results of calculations on topographic map of area of pollution source • provide opportunity to carry out calculation using parameters of emissions & its sources • model situations, originated from characteristic meteorological conditions, that can affect to distribution of pollution, and meteorological situations, where prognosticate highest level of pollution.
Calculation of dispersion • provide opportunity to model distribution of pollution, originated from several sources over all cycle of calculation • provide information take into consideration exist pollution of air (calculated or stimulated) • take into consideration characteristics of relief at area of pollution source, • building & other factors, if its substantially affect to pollution distribution • provide conformity with calculated concentrations of polluted matters according to monitoring results
Meteorological information for calculation of dispersion SEI "MOSECOMONITORING" keeps database and gives for each station according to inquire following information: • near by ground temperature - temperature of air at height 2 m from the earth surface, • the wind velocity - average horizontal velocity of wind (m per second) at height 10 m from the earth surface during 10 min, • direction of the wind - direction of the wind at height 10 m from the earth surface.
Computer programs permitted for use at present 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name Developer ADMS 3 Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC) Restrictions in use Indic AB, SMHI At presence of digital map & database of pollution sources for concrete territory Envi. Man OPSIS AB At presence of digital map & database of pollution sources for concrete territory OML Датский национальный институт исследования окружающей среды (Danish National Environmental Research Institute, NERI) ПК «Zone» Sankt-Peterburg Institute of meteorology AIRVIRO At presence meteorological data need format at agency At presence of digital map & database of pollution sources for concrete territory
Modelling of pollution • • The space model of transport air pollution The space model of the stationary source The effect of the unfavorable weather condition The 3 -dimentional model of dispersion
Inventory of ambient air pollution SEI “Mosecomonitiring” has annually actualized ØData base of industrial pollutions ØData base of car pollutions
Data base on the industrial emissions 211 industrial enterprises registered The registration form – 2 TP. Annually reconsidered They do not represent actual situation on the vilume of emission, emergency emission and the offencive emissions. The direct measurements needed 82 large enterprises are to be equipped with the direct measurement system 20 – already equipped
Monitoring of ambient air quality. Average level of air pollution in Moscow in 2003 year. Nearby highways The Center of City “sleeping” districts Integrated Index of ambient air pollution is calculated as sum of ratio concentrations of five main pollutiants (NO, NO 2 , CO, O 3, formaldehyde) to limited accessible norm. In 2003 year in average for Moscow the Index value was about 6 (higher level of air pollution) At 50% cases its value is high because of data from Automatic stations situated nearby highways. Индекс загрязнения атмосферы (ИЗА) подсчитывался для 5 -ти веществ: оксид азота, диоксид азота, оксид углерода, формальдегид, озон. Среднее по Москве значение ИЗА в 2003 году равно 6, уровень загрязнения - повышенный.
The application of monitoring data • - urban • • development and construction projects - asessment of the environmental effectiveness of the patterm of energy supply of the city - development of the norms of consruction activity and patterns of transportation routs - prevention and response measures of emergency situation - assessment of health effect
Average concentrations of main air pollutants in share of limited accessible concentrations in 2003 year Average concentrations in share of limited accessible concentrations pollutant “sleeping” districts average 0, 57 0, 33 0, 4 1, 3 1, 1 1, 2 0, 6 0, 9 Nearby highways The Center of City Carbon 0, 6 Nitrogen dioxide Nitrogen oxide
Subscribers of Moscow City system of ecological monitoring Data of Ecological monitoring are received rapidly by Municipal organizations and are presented to people through Mass media. Данные экологического мониторинга получаются оперативно муниципальными организациями и предоставляются СМИ населению Municipal organizations : Government of Moscow-City, Department of Civil defense & emergence, Prefectures, State service of Sanitary surveillance (weekly) Broadcasting companies: "Mayak", "Echo Moscow", "The Open Radio", "Autoradio" weekly) TV channels : RTR, TVC (weekly) Meteo TV (daily).
Average annual levels of pollution ambient air in the big cities