STAPLE a blank sheet of paper on top

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STAPLE a blank sheet of paper on top of all your hard-copy stuff. On

STAPLE a blank sheet of paper on top of all your hard-copy stuff. On it, write this: Name ENC 1101, TTh 11 a. m. /7 p. m. (your class) Nov. 21, 2017 Comparison-Contrast Essay • • • Inventing & Collecting (Prewriting/Brainstorming) Thesis & Outline Group Discussion Tutoring 2 Proofreaders /20 /20 /20 Any steps that you have submitted on Canvas do NOT need to be stapled, but if you are not sure, it doesn’t hurt to include them. Drafts CANNOT be turned in as hard copies. You do NOT need to include a printout of the final version of the essay; it must have been submitted on Canvas.

TONIGHT’S HOMEWORK 1. Submit Canvas “Quiz” #13 (pronoun case) AND Canvas “Quiz” #14 (modifiers),

TONIGHT’S HOMEWORK 1. Submit Canvas “Quiz” #13 (pronoun case) AND Canvas “Quiz” #14 (modifiers), 2. read chapters 17. 7 and 19 (pp. 306 -312 and 330 -331) on spelling and capitalization, AND 3. work on final-exam review handout, due Dec. 5

Adjectives, Adverbs, and Other Modifiers (pp. 219 -222 and 250 -252)

Adjectives, Adverbs, and Other Modifiers (pp. 219 -222 and 250 -252)

What are adjectives? adjectives Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. They can answer “Which one?

What are adjectives? adjectives Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. They can answer “Which one? ” “What kind? ” or “How many? ” ü A hot day ü A happy camper ü A silly goose ü A big, bloody mess (both “big” and “bloody” modify “mess”) ü She is creative (“creative” is a subject complement that follows the linking verb “is”) ü A boring course (present participle used as an adjective Articles (a, an, the), numbers, and some pronouns can also serve as adjectives.

What are adverbs? • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. • Many adverbs

What are adverbs? • Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. • Many adverbs end with -ly • Many adverbs answer the questions “How? ” or “When? ” Some tell “Where? ” and “To what extent? ” • All these words are adverbs: ü Eating quickly (modifying a verb) ü Trying very hard (modifying an adverb) ü A really big show (modifying an adjective)

Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs Many words have both an adjective and adverb form. Adjective

Recognizing Adjectives & Adverbs Many words have both an adjective and adverb form. Adjective Adverb happy kids play happily smooth rock runs smoothly real butter really hot hopeful children wait hopefully casual dress casually quick meeting talk quickly fast car drive fast (NOT fastly) a hard test study hard (NOT hardly) good food eat well (NOT goodly)

Comparatives and Superlatives • Most adverbs and adjectives have a comparative and superlative form

Comparatives and Superlatives • Most adverbs and adjectives have a comparative and superlative form created by adding -er/more or -est/most. Simple Comparative Superlative Hotter Hottest Happy Happier Happiest Exciting More exciting Most exciting Careful Less careful Least careful • Use the comparative form to compare two things. ü Sally is the taller of the twins. (not tallest) • Use the superlative form to compare three or more things. ü August was the hottest month of the year.

How to decide: -er/-est or more/most? • For an adjective or adverb of one

How to decide: -er/-est or more/most? • For an adjective or adverb of one syllable, use -er or -est: ü smarter, smartest ü faster, fastest • For a two-syllable adjective that ends in -y, change the -y to -i and add -er or -est: ü lovelier, loveliest ü happier, happiest • For all other words, use more or most: ü more beautiful, most beautiful ü more helpful, most helpful ü more quickly, most quickly

Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs These four words do not use -er/-est or more/most to

Irregular Adjectives and Adverbs These four words do not use -er/-est or more/most to form the comparative or superlative: Simple Comparative Superlative Good (adj. ) Better Best Well (adv. ) Better Best Bad (adj. ) Worse Worst Badly (adv. ) Worse Worst They can be confusing because the adjective and adverb forms are the same word.

Avoid Double Comparatives! • NEVER use more or most with -er or -est. X

Avoid Double Comparatives! • NEVER use more or most with -er or -est. X Yesterday was more hotter than today. X That was the most dirtiest joke that I ever heard! X You are the bestest student.

Do not use adjectives when adverbs are needed: X You did a real nice

Do not use adjectives when adverbs are needed: X You did a real nice job. (an adj. can’t modify another adj. ) ü You did a really nice job. (tells how nice = adverb) X He did good. ü He did well. or ü He did a good job. X Come quick! ü Come quickly! X I did wonderful on my organization this time. ü I did wonderfully on my organization this time.

Misplaced Modifiers They cause confusion. It is not clear what they are modifying because

Misplaced Modifiers They cause confusion. It is not clear what they are modifying because they are located too far from the word(s) they are modifying. To avoid confusion, put modifiers as close as possible to the word(s) they modify. Purdue University Writing Lab

Misplaced Modifiers Look for these signals: 1. a limiting modifier (almost, nearly, etc. )

Misplaced Modifiers Look for these signals: 1. a limiting modifier (almost, nearly, etc. ) OR 2. a verb phrase - an -ing verb (present participle) - an -ed verb (past participle) - to + verb (an infinitive verb) OR 3. a prepositional phrase (Birds can fly ____ clouds. ) OR 4. a relative clause (who, whom, that, which) often followed by a comma or set off with commas Purdue University Writing Lab

Misplaced Modifiers • The following LIMITING MODIFIERS often cause confusion, so be careful with

Misplaced Modifiers • The following LIMITING MODIFIERS often cause confusion, so be careful with them: almost barely even hardly just merely nearly not quite only simply • Notice how the meaning is affected by the improper placement: X I almost believe you are finished. ü I believe you are almost finished. Purdue University Writing Lab X The winners will only be contacted. ü Only the winners will be contacted.

Explain the meaning of each sentence: • Almost everyone in the class passed the

Explain the meaning of each sentence: • Almost everyone in the class passed the calculus exam. • Everyone in the class almost passed the calculus exam. • Which sentence indicates that everyone in the class FAILED the exam? Purdue University Writing Lab

Explain the meaning of each sentence: • John nearly earned $100. • John earned

Explain the meaning of each sentence: • John nearly earned $100. • John earned nearly $100. • Which sentence indicates that John earned some money? Purdue University Writing Lab

Misplaced Modifiers: Phrases Consider the different meanings of these sentences: She walked her dog

Misplaced Modifiers: Phrases Consider the different meanings of these sentences: She walked her dog in a bikini. versus In a bikini, she walked her dog.

Misplaced Modifiers Misplaced modifiers are sometimes used for comic effect: One morning I shot

Misplaced Modifiers Misplaced modifiers are sometimes used for comic effect: One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got in my pajamas, I don’t know. -- Groucho Marx However, you don’t want to be unintentionally funny! Purdue University Writing Lab

How might you correct the following sentence? Julia called her adorable kitten opening the

How might you correct the following sentence? Julia called her adorable kitten opening the can of tuna and filled the food bowl. Better: Opening the can of tuna, Julia called her adorable kitten and filled the food bowl. Purdue University Writing Lab

How might you correct the following sentence? Portia rushed to the store loaded with

How might you correct the following sentence? Portia rushed to the store loaded with cash to buy the birthday gift. Better: Loaded with cash, Portia rushed to the store to buy the birthday gift. Or: Portia, loaded with cash, rushed to the store to buy the birthday gift. Purdue University Writing Lab

How might you correct the following sentence? Locked away in the old chest, Richard

How might you correct the following sentence? Locked away in the old chest, Richard was surprised by the antique hats. Better: Locked away in the old chest, the antique hats surprised Richard. Better: The antique hats locked away in the old chest surprised Richard. Purdue University Writing Lab

Dangling Modifiers • Dangling modifiers are like misplaced modifiers in that they are not

Dangling Modifiers • Dangling modifiers are like misplaced modifiers in that they are not next to the things they modify. However, dangling modifiers modify things that are not stated in the sentence at all. • Like misplaced modifiers, they are often set off by commas and can be found by looking for these signals: 1. 2. 3. 4. a limiting modifier (almost, nearly, etc. ) a verb phrase a prepositional phrase a relative clause (who, whom, that, which)

Dangling Modifiers Having finished dinner, the football game was turned on. Having finished dinner,

Dangling Modifiers Having finished dinner, the football game was turned on. Having finished dinner, Joe turned on the football game. Purdue University Writing Lab

Dangling modifiers can be repaired by: ¨ using the person or thing being modified

Dangling modifiers can be repaired by: ¨ using the person or thing being modified as the subject of the main clause: Having finished dinner, Joe turned on the football game. ¨ adding the subject of the action to the dangling phrase: After Joe finished dinner, he turned on the football game. Purdue University Writing Lab

CQ#14: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Modifying Phrases Complete the full exercise online before the deadline.

CQ#14: Adjectives, Adverbs, and Modifying Phrases Complete the full exercise online before the deadline. Choose the appropriate word (adjective or adverb) for each blank. 1. If you drive _____, you could have an accident. A. reckless B. recklessly 2. There was a _____ noise last night. A. loud B. loudly Fill in the missing simple, comparative, or superlative forms. 3. Susan is short. Thomas is ____ than Susan, but Debra is the ____ child in the whole elementary school. 4. That insult made me feel worse than I have felt in a long time. I already felt ____ when I woke up this morning, and now I am on my way to the ____ day of my life! Identify if the modifiers are placed correctly in these sentences. 5. Chirping outside our window, we enjoyed hearing the birds all spring. A. correct B. misplaced or dangling 6. Studying for the final exam, the students ordered a pepperoni pizza. A. correct B. misplaced or dangling

Where can you go for additional help? Academic Success Centers: YLRC 105, DLRC 208,

Where can you go for additional help? Academic Success Centers: YLRC 105, DLRC 208, BACA 207, PADM 119, SMPF 206 Smar. Thinking: Access through Canvas My Office: YADM 108 E-mail: [email protected] edu Phone: 813 -259 -6470 Websites (links in Canvas): Library Databases (http: //libguides. hccfl. edu/databases) Purdue OWL (http: //owl. english. purdue. edu)