SSER Ltd Control of Rhythmic Breathing The basic

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© SSER Ltd.

© SSER Ltd.

Control of Rhythmic Breathing The basic breathing rhythm is a reflex action under the

Control of Rhythmic Breathing The basic breathing rhythm is a reflex action under the control of the nervous system The region of the brain controlling this basic rhythm is the medulla oblongata The medulla contains a breathing centre consisting of two groups of nerve cells, called the inspiratory and expiratory centres Nerves arising from these centres innervate (make contact with) the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm The thoracic nerves innervate the intercostal muscles The phrenic nerves innervate the diaphragm

Impulses travelling along the thoracic and phrenic nerves from the expiratory centre lead to

Impulses travelling along the thoracic and phrenic nerves from the expiratory centre lead to relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles EXPIRATION FOLLOWS The alveoli deflate and stretch receptors are no longer stimulated inhibit stimulate thoracic nerves phrenic nerves A pattern of nerve impulses travels along the vagus nerve to the respiratory centres leading to inhibition of the inspiratory centre and stimulation of the expiratory centre stimulate inhibit Expiratory centre Inspiratory centre A pattern of nerve impulses travels along the vagus nerve to the respiratory centres leading to stimulation of the inspiratory centre and inhibition of the expiratory centre phrenic nerves INSPIRATION FOLLOWS thoracic nerves At the height of an Impulses travelling along inspiration, the thoracic and phrenic alveoli are inflated nerves from the and stretched, inspiratory centre lead to thus stimulating contraction of the stretch receptors diaphragm and in their walls intercostal muscles

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The purpose of the breathing rhythm is to

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The purpose of the breathing rhythm is to ventilate the lungs to allow delivery of oxygen to the alveoli, and elimination of the waste gas carbon dioxide from the alveoli As a consequence of gas exchange at the alveoli, there are differences between the composition of inhaled and exhaled air Another factor that contributes to the differences found between inspired and expired air, is the dead space content The dead space is the region of the respiratory tract where NO gas exchange takes place trachea bronchi Gas exchange only takes place across the thin walls of the alveoli The air filling the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles is unavailable for gas exchange and is said to occupy dead space A healthy adult, at rest, inspires approximately 600 cm 3 of air of which about 150 cm 3 fills the airways The volume of air actually reaching the alveoli is thus about 450 cm 3 bronchioles As the air passages are never completely emptied of air, there is only a partial replacement of air in the lungs

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The table below can be used to explain

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The table below can be used to explain what happens to air as it enters and leaves the respiratory system The Relative Composition (% by Volume) of Inspired, Expired & Alveolar Air Gas Inspired air % Expired air Alveolar air % % Oxygen 20. 71 14. 6 13. 2 Carbon dioxide 0. 04 3. 8 5. 0 Water vapour 1. 25 6. 2 Nitrogen 78. 0 75. 4 75. 6 It is important to realise that the lungs can never be completely emptied of air; even following a forced expiration, air remains within the alveoli and this amount of air is called the residual volume

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air Inspired air contains approximately 21% by volume of

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air Inspired air contains approximately 21% by volume of oxygen gas; as this fresh air is drawn into the alveoli, it mixes with air already present (the residual volume) The Relative Composition (% by Volume) of Inspired, Expired & Alveolar Air Gas Inspired air % Expired air Alveolar air % % Oxygen 20. 71 14. 6 13. 2 Carbon dioxide 0. 04 3. 8 5. 0 Water vapour 1. 25 6. 2 Nitrogen 78. 0 75. 4 75. 6 The residual volume dilutes the fresh air, such that the oxygen content falls to about 67% of that in the atmosphere The oxygen content of alveolar air now falls even further as oxygen diffuses from the alveoli in to the blood along its concentration gradient

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The carbon dioxide content of alveolar air increases

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The carbon dioxide content of alveolar air increases significantly as gas exchange proceeds and carbon dioxide diffuses from the blood into the alveoli The Relative Composition (% by Volume) of Inspired, Expired & Alveolar Air Gas Inspired air % Expired air Alveolar air % % Oxygen 20. 71 14. 6 13. 2 Carbon dioxide 0. 04 3. 8 5. 0 Water vapour 1. 25 6. 2 Nitrogen 78. 0 75. 4 75. 6 The oxygen content of expired air is higher than that in the alveoli and is intermediate in value between that atmospheric air and alveolar air This is explained by the fact that expired air from the alveoli mixes with the dead space air whose oxygen content is the same as that of the atmosphere

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The percent by volume of carbon dioxide in

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The percent by volume of carbon dioxide in expired air is less than that of alveolar air The Relative Composition (% by Volume) of Inspired, Expired & Alveolar Air Gas Inspired air % Expired air Alveolar air % % Oxygen 20. 71 14. 6 13. 2 Carbon dioxide 0. 04 3. 8 5. 0 Water vapour 1. 25 6. 2 Nitrogen 78. 0 75. 4 75. 6 Again, this is explained by the fact that expired air from the alveoli mixes with the dead space air containing very low levels of carbon dioxide

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The water vapour content of expired air is

Composition of Inspired and Expired Air The water vapour content of expired air is significantly higher than that of inspired air; as air is breathed into the alveoli, water from the lining of the alveoli evaporates into the alveolar air such that expired air is greater in volume than inspired air The Relative Composition (% by Volume) of Inspired, Expired & Alveolar Air Gas Inspired air % Expired air Alveolar air % % Oxygen 20. 71 14. 6 13. 2 Carbon dioxide 0. 04 3. 8 5. 0 Water vapour 1. 25 6. 2 Nitrogen 78. 0 75. 4 75. 6 Nitrogen gas is neither used or produced by the body and actual amounts of nitrogen in inspired an expired air do not change The slightly larger volume of expired air means that nitrogen forms part of a larger volume during expiration and so its percent by volume decreases

Measuring Lung Volumes The spirometer consists of a large tank of water, onto which

Measuring Lung Volumes The spirometer consists of a large tank of water, onto which rests a large, and very light perspex lid counter -weight light, perspex lid A series of pipes lead from the air under the lid of the box to the mouthpiece A set of valves ensures that inspired and expired air travel along different pipes The subject breathes air into and out of the space under the lid via the mouthpiece tank of water kymograph A counterweight on the edge of the lid is used to balance the box, so that its edges just rest under the surface of the water A nose clip is placed on the subject to prevent any air being lost from the system through the nose Volume changes associated with breathing are recorded with a pen from the lid onto a rotating drum (kymograph) mouthpiece valves soda lime Expired air is passed over soda lime to absorb CO 2 gas thus preventing the subject from inspiring increasing amounts of this gas The volumes of air inspired and expired in different circumstances, can be measured using an instrument called a spirometer

As the subject breathes in through the mouthpiece, the lid moves down

As the subject breathes in through the mouthpiece, the lid moves down

As the subject breathes in through the mouthpiece, the lid moves down As the

As the subject breathes in through the mouthpiece, the lid moves down As the subject breathes out through the mouthpiece, the lid moves up

As the subject breathes in through the mouthpiece, the lid moves down As the

As the subject breathes in through the mouthpiece, the lid moves down As the subject breathes out through the mouthpiece, the lid moves up

Kymograph Recording of Lung Volumes time This graph shows the results of a spirometer

Kymograph Recording of Lung Volumes time This graph shows the results of a spirometer recording; it is customary to display spirometer traces upside down with inspiration curves moving upwards and expiration curves moving downwards

The volume of air breathed in an out during one ventilation cycle, or breath,

The volume of air breathed in an out during one ventilation cycle, or breath, is called the TIDAL VOLUME tidal volume time The tidal volume is found to vary from 0. 4 to 0. 6 dm 3 in healthy subjects; following strenuous exercise it can rise to around 3. 0 dm 3

The air we normally breathe in and out, does not represent our full capacity

The air we normally breathe in and out, does not represent our full capacity for inspiration or for expiration If a subject is asked to take as deep a breath as possible, i. e. force an inspiration, we obtain a trace of the INSPIRATORY CAPACITY inspiratory capacity inspiratory reserve volume tidal volume time In order to achieve their inspiratory capacity, subjects must continue to inhale after a normal inspiration The extra amount of air that can be inhaled following a normal inspiration is called the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME

Subjects can also force an expiration, although the extra volume of air that can

Subjects can also force an expiration, although the extra volume of air that can be expired is less than obtained in a forced inspiration inspiratory capacity inspiratory reserve volume expiratory capacity expiratory reserve volume tidal volume time As with inspiration, we can obtain traces for EXPIRATORY CAPACITY and EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME

If we add together the inspiratory and expiratory capacities, that is the maximum volume

If we add together the inspiratory and expiratory capacities, that is the maximum volume of air that can be exchanged during one breath in and out, we have a measure of the VITAL CAPACITY inspiratory capacity inspiratory reserve volume vital capacity expiratory reserve volume time The average vital capacities are about 5. 5 dm 3 for a male and 4. 25 dm 3 for a female tidal volume

The lungs cannot be completely emptied and a certain volume of air always remains

The lungs cannot be completely emptied and a certain volume of air always remains in the lungs even following a forced expiration This is called the RESIDUAL VOLUME inspiratory capacity inspiratory reserve volume vital capacity expiratory reserve volume tidal volume residual volume time This measurement cannot be made using a spirometer and requires more sophisticated techniques; values of about 1. 5 dm 3 are reported for residual volumes

The TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY is therefore the sum of of the vital capacity and

The TOTAL LUNG CAPACITY is therefore the sum of of the vital capacity and the residual volume inspiratory capacity inspiratory reserve volume vital capacity expiratory reserve volume residual volume tidal volume total lung capacity time Spirometer tracings can be used to determine a variety of physiological measurements such as metabolic rate, breathing rate and oxygen consumption

Acknowledgements Copyright © 2003 SSER Ltd. and its licensors. All rights reserved. All graphics

Acknowledgements Copyright © 2003 SSER Ltd. and its licensors. All rights reserved. All graphics are for viewing purposes only.