Springer Nature and Open Access Current status and

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Springer Nature and Open Access Current status and future developments Paris, 6 October 2017

Springer Nature and Open Access Current status and future developments Paris, 6 October 2017

1 The scholarly research landscape How did we get here? 1665: launch of Philosophical

1 The scholarly research landscape How did we get here? 1665: launch of Philosophical Transactions 1991: [Title for presentation / Date to go here] 2002: “An old tradition and a new technology have converged to make possible an unprecedented public good. The old tradition is the willingness of scientists and scholars to publish the fruits of their research in scholarly journals without payment, for the sake of inquiry and knowledge. The new technology is the internet. The public good they make possible is the world-wide electronic distribution of the peerreviewed journal literature and completely free and unrestricted access to it by all scientists, scholars, teachers, students, and other curious minds. Removing access barriers to this literature will accelerate research, enrich education, share the learning of the rich with the poor and the poor with the rich, make this literature as useful as it can be, and lay the foundation for uniting humanity in a common intellectual conversation and quest for knowledge. ”

2 What is open access? Open access is the free, unrestricted online access to

2 What is open access? Open access is the free, unrestricted online access to scholarly research http: //legacy. earlham. edu/~peters/fos/overview. htm [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

3 Open access models [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

3 Open access models [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

4 The growth of open access In 2015: • OA = 10% to 20%

4 The growth of open access In 2015: • OA = 10% to 20% of all research • 2 m+ OA articles in DOAJ • Est. 3 m OA articles by 2017 (a much faster rate than estimates of 3. 5% annual growth for research as a whole) Simba Information Open Access Journal Publishing 2014 -2017 Springer Nature published in 2016 about 90 k out of 300 k articles in gold open access [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

5 The growth of open access Increasing funding policies worldwide 725 OA policies worldwide

5 The growth of open access Increasing funding policies worldwide 725 OA policies worldwide [Title for presentation / Date to go here] Image from PASTEUR 4 OA, reproduced under a CC BY v 4. 0 Attribution Licence http: //pasteur 4 oa-dataviz. okfn. org/map. html

6 Funder requirements vary Funding body OA mandate OA publication in journal required? OA

6 Funder requirements vary Funding body OA mandate OA publication in journal required? OA publication: licence required Self-archiving AAM in repository required? Self-archiving: max. embargo from publication Self-archiving: repository required RCUK Yes Encouraged CC BY required Yes, if not publishing OA 6 months MRC – Europe PMC; other RCs – any subject or institutional repository HEFCE Yes No CC licence Yes, in all cases required (CC BY preferred) 12 months (deposit on acceptance) Any subject or institutional repository European Commission (Horizon 2020) Yes Encouraged CC BY preferred Yes, in all cases 6 months Any subject or institutional repository Wellcome Trust / COAF Yes, if journal makes option available CC BY required Yes, in all cases 6 months Europe PMC Max Planck No Encouraged CC BY preferred Encouraged Not specified n/a

7 OA funds by world region Funding concentrated in Europe 300 250 OA block

7 OA funds by world region Funding concentrated in Europe 300 250 OA block grant only # APC funds 200 Institutional fund only 171 150 Institutional/consortium funds and block grant 100 OA funders 37 50 63 46 0 Funders Instns Europe 65 19 Funders 4 6 Instns North America Funders Asia Instns Funders 1 Instns International 2 Funders 4 Instns Australia and Oceania Source: Springer Nature OA funding & policy database

8 OA mandates and funding OA funding for articles • • • 94 research

8 OA mandates and funding OA funding for articles • • • 94 research funding bodies in 27 countries make funds available for article APCs (up 11% from Feb 2016) 156 institutions in 18 countries have independent APC funds (up 26% from Feb 2016)* A further 83 institutions in the UK distribute OA funding from block grants allocated by funders (RCUK and COAF), while 88 institutes in Germany have a shared consortial APC fund (Leibniz) OA mandates from funders with APC funding available 4 0% 1 5 24 20% 23 40% 1 60% 14 19 80% Gold mandated if available, green also mandated Gold mandated if available, green mandated if gold unavailable Gold preferred Gold encouraged, green also mandated Green (org. given non-exclusive license to deposit manuscript) Green or gold mandated, no preference Green preferred Not known OA funding for monographs • • 100% 18 funders offer funding for OA monographs 33 institutions offer funding for OA monos (but of these many have very low APC limits) 120% *Some of this growth is due to our discovery of existing funds, rather than newly launched institutional funding.

9 Perceptions of open access Author insights survey 2015 • Reputation and relevance of

9 Perceptions of open access Author insights survey 2015 • Reputation and relevance of a journal remain most important to authors • Knowledge and understanding of funder mandates is very patchy! • There is greater awareness of, and availability of, OA publications • Concerns about the quality of open access are declining [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

10 Author insights survey: demographics [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

10 Author insights survey: demographics [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

11 Author insights survey (STM views) [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

11 Author insights survey (STM views) [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

12 Author insights survey: reputation [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

12 Author insights survey: reputation [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

13 Author insights survey: funding [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

13 Author insights survey: funding [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

14 Author insights survey: attitudes towards open access [Title for presentation / Date to

14 Author insights survey: attitudes towards open access [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

15 Author insights survey: attitudes towards open access [Title for presentation / Date to

15 Author insights survey: attitudes towards open access [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

16 Open access: the benefits: • • • Immediate online access Increased visibility Citation

16 Open access: the benefits: • • • Immediate online access Increased visibility Citation advantage Accelerated science Collaboration Reproducibility Find out more: http: //www. nature. com/openresearch/aboutopen-access/benefits-for-authors/ [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

17 CC BY: maximising re-use and dissemination ‘Dandelion wish’, John Liu. Licensed under a

17 CC BY: maximising re-use and dissemination ‘Dandelion wish’, John Liu. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution v 2. 0 Generic (CC BY) License https: //www. flickr. com/photos/[email protected] 02/5572197407 / [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

18 Open access articles experience higher downloads and citations More studies at: http: //sparceurope.

18 Open access articles experience higher downloads and citations More studies at: http: //sparceurope. org/oaca/ [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

19 Increased visibility leads to greater public engagement [Title for presentation / Date to

19 Increased visibility leads to greater public engagement [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

20 OA facilitates collaboration [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

20 OA facilitates collaboration [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

21 OA facilitates reproducibility [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

21 OA facilitates reproducibility [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

22 What do we mean by open research? “making research more transparent, more collaborative

22 What do we mean by open research? “making research more transparent, more collaborative and more efficient”* • Beyond open access • Not just journals, books too! • Broader than “open science” • Inclusive of HSS • Open data • Collaboration tools • Open peer review *Source: Wikipedia, adapted … and more that we haven’t imagined yet [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

Leading the industry across Open Research: Springer Nature aspirations Our OR mission OR toolset

Leading the industry across Open Research: Springer Nature aspirations Our OR mission OR toolset breadth Our OR aspirations • Multidisciplinary: leading across disciplines Help tackle today’s most important challenges in research • Open Access • Open Data • Policy • Services • Interdisciplinary: breaking down barriers across geographies and subject areas • Discoverability: maximising the efficiency of research and enabling access for a wider population • Velocity: accelerating research [Title for presentation / Date to go here] 23

24 How do we facilitate the transition to open access? • • • Allow

24 How do we facilitate the transition to open access? • • • Allow preprints Hybrid open access (Open Choice) Allowing green with standardized embargo times Developing sponsored journals Springer Compact deals Experiments like SCOAP 3 • And to maximize the impact of “paywalled” articles: Shared. It Links [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

25 Springer Compact: consortia agreements for hybrid OA The pilot agreements contain a unique

25 Springer Compact: consortia agreements for hybrid OA The pilot agreements contain a unique combination of: • Open access publishing in Springer’s hybrid (Open Choice) journals Publishing open access in 1, 500+ Springer hybrid journals • Full access and archival rights to all subscription-based and licensed journals on Springer. Link Partnerships between key stakeholders: authors, librarians, research institutes/funders, Springer [Title for presentation / Date to go here] Accessing all journals at Springer. Link

26 Springer and SCOAP 3 has been a valuable experiment about the transition to

26 Springer and SCOAP 3 has been a valuable experiment about the transition to open access: Lessons learned: • • Need for a very strong and dedicated funder or research institute (like CERN) Willingness to invest heavily A strong personal dedication It takes very long to “carve out” the subscription value for a few journals out of the “big deals” that libraries have • Transition of just one community is cumbersome, Springer Nature prefers to “flip” customer by customer through Compact agreements [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

27 Why share data? [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

27 Why share data? [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

28 Why share data? • Improve the veracity, robustness and reproducibility of research results

28 Why share data? • Improve the veracity, robustness and reproducibility of research results • Increase the ability of editors, reviewers and researchers understand research • Increase links between research outputs • Increase visibility and discoverability of all research outputs • Open up new opportunities for collaboration • Potentially improve the citation rate of published research articles • Improved validity and credibility of science • Increased awareness of previous experiments, reducing inefficiency • Increase trust in the outcomes of scientific experiments 1. : https: //peerj. com/articles/175/ 2. : http: //journals. plos. org/plosone/article? id=10. 1371/journal. pone. 0000308 [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

29 Why share data? Because more and more organisations require it. • Funder and

29 Why share data? Because more and more organisations require it. • Funder and institutional mandates 1 • • Regulatory agencies (European Medicines Agency) Legislation (Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act) Non-governmental/academic (Yale Open Data Access project) International Committee of Medical Journal Editors 2 1. Hahnel, Mark (2015): Global funders who require data archiving as a condition of grants. figshare. http: //dx. doi. org/10. 6084/m 9. figshare. 1281141 2. http: //www. icmje. org/news-and-editorials/principles_data_sharing_jan 2014. html [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

30 Why share data? Many journals now require it to varying extents. Springer Nature

30 Why share data? Many journals now require it to varying extents. Springer Nature has a set of four standard research data policies that their journals implement one of (where applicable). These are: http: //www. springernature. com/gp/group/data-policy STRONGER [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

31 But is the world ready to open up their data? Recently there has

31 But is the world ready to open up their data? Recently there has been a noticeable shift towards opening up research data with researchers from almost all subject areas confirming they understand the value of sharing data. The change to standardised data sharing is slow but occurring “Our request to share patient data remained unanswered by five out of 18 research groups. Another four declined collaboration for various reasons, including own reanalysis of the data, and lack of parental consent. With less than 40% of the individual patient data available, we refrained from pursuing the proposed study. ” Systematic Reviews 2014, 3: 97 doi: 10. 1186/2046 -4053 -3 -97 Researcher Perspectives on Publication and Peer Review of Data, PLOSONE, http: //journals. plos. org/plosone/article? id=10. 1371/journal. pone. 0117619 [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

32 It will take time for open data to be as common as open

32 It will take time for open data to be as common as open access but progress is being made “Scholarly publishers have an important role in encouraging and mandating the availability of data and. . . developing innovative mechanisms and platforms for sharing and publishing products of research” — Hrynaszkiewicz, I. , Li, P. , Edmunds, S. C. Open science and the role of publishers in reproducible research. In: Implementing Reproducible Research. Edited by Stodden, V. , Leisch, F. , Peng, R. D. (Chapman & Hall/CRC; 2014) [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

33 Springer Nature Standardised Data Policies Learn more about our company wide data policies

33 Springer Nature Standardised Data Policies Learn more about our company wide data policies through this video • We offer resources and advice to authors and editors to help them comply with our Data Policies, which can be found here: http: //www. springernature. com/gp/group/data-policy • A free Research Data Support Helpdesk (Research. [email protected] com) is also available for authors, editors and readers who have questions about data sharing, data repositories and data availability [Title for presentation / Date to go here]

34 Get Credit for Sharing Your Data Publications will be listed in the major

34 Get Credit for Sharing Your Data Publications will be listed in the major indexes and will be citeable Open access Authors select from three Creative Commons licenses for the main Data Descriptor. Each publication supported by curated CC 0 metadata Focused on Data Reuse All the information others need to reuse the data; no interpretative analysis or hypothesis testing Peer-reviewed Rigorous peer-review managed by our Editorial Board of academic researchers ensures data quality and standards Promoting Community Data Repositories Data stored in community data repositories [Title for presentation / Date to go here]