- Slides: 43
Spiritual Theology (THE 390) Lecture IV: Sanctifying Grace, Actual Grace and the Indwelling of the Blessed Trinity
Review T F T T T T Christ exercises His Capital influence as Head of the Mystical Body through the Sacraments of the Church and through faith impetrated by charity. F Sanctifying Grace is received in the faculties of the soul while Actual Graces are received in the essence of the soul. F Sanctifying Grace makes us just and pleasing to God. F Although a person is not in the state of Sanctifying Grace, as long as actual grace is available, he can immediately obtain supernatural merit. F Sanctifying grace brings with it the Uncreated Grace of the Indwelling of the Blessed Trinity. F Actual grace is the divine influence which moves an infused habit to its operation. F The infused virtues and gifts of the Holy Spirit are operative principles whereas Sanctifying grace is not immediately operative. F The infused virtues always accompany Sanctifying Grace but at the same time are distinct from it.
Review ► Define Sanctifying Grace and give some of its principal effects upon the soul: ► What is the principal difference between Sanctifying Grace and Actual Grace? ► List the 3 roles that Mary plays in the spiritual life.
Man’s natural perfection § Vegetative, sensitive, and rational powers constitute man’s natural life ►Like plants – existence, reproduction, nourishment and growth ►Like animals – appetites, passions, locomotion ►Like angels – knows immaterial and can be drawn to natural good
§ The functions proper to the soul are the spiritual activities of the mind (thinking), the will (deciding), and the will (desiring): ► intellect ► executive will ► affective will
§ Nothing in human nature postulates the supernatural order ► this elevation of natural man to the supernatural order is a totally gratuitous act on the part of God § Grace builds upon nature ► There exists a close analogy between the natural and supernatural orders ► Sanctifying grace is the formal principle of the supernatural organism as the soul is the formal principle of the natural organism
In nature: § living subject § formal principle of life § faculties and powers § operations of these faculties and powers ► In the Supernatural Life § soul § sanctifying grace § infused virtues and gifts § acts of the infused virtues and gifts ►
A Definition of Sanctifying Grace § “. . . a supernatural quality, inhering in the soul, which gives us a physical and formal participation, although analogous and accidental, in the very nature of God precisely as God” (Royo, 31). ► Grace is a quality, of the first kind of species, that of a habit. Sanctifying grace is permanent and difficult to remove. ► It puts one into the sphere of the divine § The minimum degree of grace is greater than the entire good of the universe (Ia IIae, q. 113, a. 9, ad 2).
It inheres in the soul § Protestants held for extrinsic justification but Catholics hold that our justification is intrinsic § Divine love creates goodness in us by loving us, and thus loving goodness into us (gratia gratum faciens). § God communicates to the soul a certain participation of His likeness in the soul
Participation § It is physical as opposed to moral ► members of an association participate morally in the good reputation of the organization ► the moon participates physically in the light of the sun § It is formal as opposed to virtual ► flowers are virtually present in a plant seed as something that will later come to be ► animality is formally participated in by brutes and men alike
§ It is analogous as opposed to univocal ► human nature is univocally shared by all men ► inanimate creatures have being analogically § It is accidental as opposed to substantial ► what is an accident inheres in the other and does not form its essence ► “What is substantial in God becomes accidental in the soul which participates in the Divine Goodness” (Ia. IIae, q. 110, a. 2, ad. 2).
§ § § It is a participation in the Divine Nature 2 Peter 1: 4 – “. . . he has granted to us his precious and very great promises, that through these you may escape from the corruption that is in the world because of passion, and become partakers of the divine nature. ” “By the mingling of this water and wine, may we come to share in the divinity of Christ who humbled himself to share in our humanity” (Roman Missal). “Recognize your dignity, O Christian, and having been made a participant of the divine nature, do not desire to return to the baseness of your former condition” (St. Leo the Great, ser 21).
Three classes of creatures which imitate God analogically: § irrational creatures – in so far as they exist; they participate in being § rational creatures – possessing intelligence, they are the natural imago Dei § souls in the state of grace – they possess a union with God by love of friendship and thus are the supernatural imago Dei
► “Grace is nothing other than a certain participated likeness of the divine nature” (IIIa q. 62, a. 1). § the special likeness to God produced in the soul is infinitely greater than the natural good of the image of God in the natural order. ► The subject of sanctifying grace is the very essence of the soul and not the faculties § Argument for this: ► regeneration is primarily in the essence of the soul and not in this or that faculty ► sanctifying grace is a static perfection whereas the virtues are dynamic perfections ► placing Sanctifying Grace in the will would tend to identify it with charity, from which it is distinct
Other definitions of Sanctifying Grace (Postulants Manual, CJC) The living presence of God, loving you within your soul ► a created gift of God that inheres in the soul making the person participate in the personal life that is God ► permanent communion which God establishes through Jesus Christ between Himself and you and develops within your soul the divine dimension to your interior life ►
► supernatural gift, inner and permanent, that God grants to you, to make you Godlike and to make you a member of His family ► a permanent communion of life which God establishes between Himself and you through Jesus that results in a new life, divine life, to your souls. ► A sharing in god which makes your souls alive with “God-Life” ► God’s self-communication to you and the effects of that self-communication upon you.
Effects of Sanctifying Grace § § Primary Effect – Sanctifying Grace gives a participation in the divine nature. From this primary effect flow all the other effects of grace. Three principal effects are given in Romans 8: 15 -17 “For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the spirit of sonship. When we cry, ‘Abba! Father!’ it is the Spirit himself bearing witness with our spirit that we are children of God, and if children, then heirs, heirs of God and fellow heirs with Christ, provided we suffer with him in order that we may also be glorified with him. ”
Sanctifying Grace Makes us Adopted Children of God It is a transmission to another of one’s specific nature ► not a natural filiation; God has only one Son according to nature ► ours is an adopted filiation ►
► Sanctifying grace goes far beyond the requisites of natural adoption § § § likeness of nature required for adoption gratuitous love is a requisite true right of inheritance is required for the adopted Unlike natural adoption, supernatural adoption causes and intrinsic change in the nature of the person adopted. Sanctifying grace is infused in us. The soul thus shares the very life of God. This is not the case of natural adoption. ► “See what love the Father has given us, that we should be called children of God; and so we are” (1 Jn. 3: 1). ►
Grace makes us true heirs of God “and if children, then heirs, heirs of God. . . ” (Romans 8: 17) ► The inheritance comes now, and is not necessary to wait to some other moment of time when the father dies, as in natural adoption. ► § “grace is the beginning of glory in us” (IIa. IIae, q. 24, a. 3, ad 2) § The beatific vision is the fundamental inheritance of being “heirs of God”
The inheritance is infinite in nature and thus is not diminished by the increase in number of adopted children, as in the case of natural adoption with a finite inheritance ► All actions which proceed from the principle of Sanctifying Grace merit and increase in grace and the beatific vision, heaven, is thus able to be merited in justice. ►
Grace makes us brothers and coheirs with Christ “For those whom he foreknew he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, in order that he might b e the firstborn among many brethren” (Rom. 8: 29). ► He became our brother in humanity in order to make us His brothers in divinity ► “. . . in the order of nature He is the only Son; but in the order of grace and adoption, He is our elder brother” (Royo, 39). ►
► The Father looks at us and sees His Son § “For it was fitting that he, for whom and by whom all things exist, in bringing many sons to glory, should make the pioneer of their salvation perfect through suffering. For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified have all one origin. That is why he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying, ‘I will proclaim thy name to my brethren, in the midst of the congregation I will praise thee’” (Heb. 2: 10 -12).
Other Effects of Grace 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Gives us supernatural life. Makes us just and pleasing to God. Gives us the capacity for supernatural merit. Unites us intimately with God. Makes one a living Temple of the Trinity.
Actual Grace § Definition: “those graces which dispose or move in a transient manner for doing or receiving something in regard to eternal life” (Royo, 41). It comes with sanctifying grace under the division of graces entitled gratia gratum faciens, as opposed to the other division, gratia gratis data. ► Actual graces are ordained toward the infused habits § To receive them when the soul does not have them § To put the infused habits in motion when the soul already possesses them
Actual Graces are received into the faculties of the soul ► Elevating them to produce indeliberate supernatural acts (gratia operans) ► Elevating them to produce deliberate supernatural acts (gratia co-operans).
Differences between habitual grace and sanctifying grace ► Habitual Grace – permanent qualities which work effects in a continual and indefectible manner § ► Habitual Grace – disposes the faculties of the soul for action § ► actual grace – transient qualities whose final effect is often frustrated actual grace – prompts and produces the act itself Virtues and gifts – have a restricted area in which they reside and function (i. e. certain faculties or powers) § actual grace – extend to the entire domain of the supernatural life
Necessity of Actual Grace ► Only God who produced the infused supernatural habits in the soul can set them in motion. § ► To reduce a potency to act requires a being already in motion, in the natural order. The same holds true in the supernatural order. § ► This cannot be achieved by a simple natural impulse – a natural impulse cannot move a supernatural disposition. A supernatural disposition is required. God who is Pure Act acts upon the soul’s supernatural potencies Actual grace is the divine influence which moves the infused habit to its operation
The Division of Actual Graces 1. Operating grace vs. co-operating grace 2. Gratia excitans vs. gratia adjuvans 3. Prevenient grace vs. concomitant grace 4. Internal grace vs. external grace 5. Sufficient grace vs. efficacious grace 6. Grace of illumination vs. grace of inspiration 7. Direct grace vs. indirect grace
Functions of Actual Grace ► Disposes the soul to receive the infused habits of sanctifying grace and the virtues § when the soul hasn’t yet possessed them § when the soul has lost them through mortal sin’ grace of repentance ► grace of fearing punishment ► grace of placing confidence in God’s mercy ►
► Actuates the infused habits together with sanctifying grace § perfects the infused virtues § increases sanctifying grace ► Prevents the loss of infused habits through mortal sin § Strengthens the soul in the face of temptations § Gives warnings in the face of danger § Inspires by means of good and holy thoughts § Inspires mortification
“Rules of the Road”
Some “Rules of the Road” on the Spiritual Journey (Postulant’s Manual, CJC) To those who ask, God never denies grace. . . But you must ask and that means you must pray for them. ► God never commands you to do the impossible. . . If he asks you to do it, He will offer you the grace to get it done. ► God never imposes Himself on anyone. . . If you get it you must want it. ► Ask God for the grace to see what you should do. . . But before you ask, tell Him you will do it. ►
► ► ► Be sensitive to actual graces. . . Respond to them on the spot. When actual graces do not seem to be there. . . pray for them. When you pray for them, be confident. . . but humble. Your prayer for actual graces for others is no less strong as prayer for actual graces for yourself. Do not pray to see the whole nine miles down the road. . . Pray only to see the next 30 feet.
The Indwelling of the Blessed Trinity § A Stupendous Revelation in Sacred Scripture “Anyone who loves me will be true to my word, and my Father will love him; we will come to him and make our dwelling place with him” (Jn. 14: 23) ► “We have come to know and to believe in the love God has for us. God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God in him” (1 Jn. 4: 16) ►
The Indwelling as Taught by St. Paul ►“Are you not aware that you are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? If anyone destroys God’s temple, God will destroy him. For the temple of God is holy, and your are that temple” (1 Cor. 3: 16 -17) ►“You must know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is within – the Spirit you have received from God. You are not your own. You have been purchased, and at a price. So glorify God in your body” (1 Cor. 6: 19 -20) ►“Guard the rich deposit of faith with the help of the Holy Spirit who dwells within us” (2 Tim 1: 14)
§ This Indwelling of the Blessed Trinity is Called Uncreated Grace as opposed to Created Grace (Sanctifying Grace) § The Indwelling is Attributed to the Holy Spirit ► All actions ad extra are appropriated to the Holy Spirit, but it is the One God that acts § § § § Holy Spirit at Creation Holy Spirit creating/animating Adam Holy Spirit empowering the prophets Holy Spirit consecrating the Temple Holy Spirit impregnating Mary Holy Spirit given from the Cross Holy Spirit begetting the Church at Pentecost
What does the Blessed Trinity do in a soul ? ► God communicates Himself to the soul through sanctifying grace. § causes the adopted supernatural filiation § engenders God-Life in us § Not a transient action, but continuous one – parallel with power of conservation – a seal causing the imprint in the wax but remain in contact and in the wax to continue the effect
What does the Blessed Trinity do in a soul ? ► God is continuing His Divine Life in the soul. § Father is generating the Son and the Holy Spirit is spirating, in the soul § The Holy Spirit is breathing in the just soul
What does the Blessed Trinity do in a soul ? ► The Blessed Trinity becomes the object of mystical experience. § § § The Indwelling is present in the least of the baptized as in the saint All souls in the state of grace possess the Indwelling and thus all are potential mystics Mystical experience is made possible and is the normal end of all baptized Catholics because of the Indwelling soul can operate and use the gift of Sanctifying Grace but it also has the power to enjoy the Divine Persons dwelling within This often doesn’t come to full fruition until the Beatific Vision, but it is the normal unfolding of baptismal grace