Spelling One Syllable Words Derivative Words Multi-syllable Words
Spelling stages adapted from K. Ganske (2000) Word Journeys, NY: Guilford Pubs. 2
Stage 1. Emergent Spelling • The distinction between drawing and writing • How to make letters • The direction of writing on a page • Some letter-sound matches
Stage 2. Letter Name/Alphabetic Spelling • • The alphabetic principle Consonant sounds Short vowel sounds Consonant blends and digraphs
Stage 3. Within Word Pattern Spelling • • Long-vowel spelling patterns r-controlled vowels More-complex consonant patterns Diphthongs and other less common vowel patterns
Stage 4. Syllables and Affix Spelling • • Inflectional endings (-s, -ed, -ing) Rules for adding inflectional endings Syllabication Homophones
Stage 5. Derivational Relations Spelling • Consonant alternations (e. g. , soft– soften, magic–magician) • Vowel alternations (e. g. , please– pleasant, define–definition, explain– explanation) • Greek and Latin affixes and root words • Etymologies
Pre-requisite Skills for Spelling Phonemic Awareness Identifying Letters Sound-Letter Relationships
Segmenting of Words/Syllables into Phonemes/Sounds (Spelling)
Phonemic Awareness • 1. The ability to analyze words/syllables into individual phonemes/sounds. • 2. The most advanced stage of phonological awareness. • 3. Phonemic awareness begins with the identification of initial phonemes, followed by the identification of final phonemes, and then medial phonemes.
Phonemic Awareness • The two most important phonemic awareness skills is the ability to segment words/syllables into individual phonemes needed for spelling novel words and
Phonemic Awareness • Phonemic awareness is the most advanced type of phonological awareness that includes rhyming (mat cat), segmenting words into syllables (Ro sen berg) and onsets and rimes (c-at, st-op). • All phonological tasks including phonemic awareness is done orally (without the use of letters) • Phonics is the learning about the relationships between letters and phonemes.
Skills at sounding out words and spelling them phonetically unfolds gradually as children become able to identify all of the speech sounds in a word to which letters need to be matched.
Is Phonological Awareness the same as Spelling? . . . NO Spelling is the learning about the relationships between phonemes and letters. Phonics is the mapping of each sound to a letter or group of letters. It is the instruction of sound-symbol relationships (the code). ABC’s
Letter Knowledge One of the best predictors of first-grade reading success is a kindergarten student’s ability to visually recognize the letters of the alphabet and to name them (Adams 1990). This includes recognizing the letters in both their uppercase and lowercase forms. If students cannot recognize and discriminate one letter shape from another teaching phonics will make little sense.
Letter Formation When teaching the names of the letter, begin with sky writing the letter to assist children to focus on the shape of the letters. As explicit instruction in letter sound connection begins, handwriting is an important component to include. 1
Beginning spellers must know their letters and have a basic understanding of how the letters of words represent sounds/phonemes. Beginning spellers must know that the phonemes of a word are written left to right.
a t i • • s n p Literacy How, Inc. s 20
c a t
f r o g
Consonant Phonemes/Sounds • Consonant are always blocked sounds (teeth, tongue, lips) and can be voiced or unvoiced.
Vowel Phonemes/Sounds • Vowel sounds are unblocked and always voiced.
Phonics/Spelling Generalizations Literacy How, Inc. 25
Consonant Letters Represent Consonant Sounds • Single: • b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z • Consonant Digraphs/Tri-graphs: • Two/three consonant letters, but one consonant sound (usually unique) • ck, ch/tch, sh, th, wh, ph, dg(e) Graph= letter, Di= 2, Tri = 3 Literacy How, Inc. 26
Consonant Blends • Two/three consonants in which each letter represents their usual sound • Beginning consonant blends: bl. cl, fl, gl, pl, sc, scr, sk, sl, sm, sn, spr, str, sw, br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tw Ending consonant blends: • sk, st, sp, mp, nt, lk, nk, rp, rb, ft, ng, Literacy How, Inc. 27
Consonant Letters Silent letters: Initial : kn_, gn_, ps_, rh_, wr_ Final: _bt, _lm, _mn, _lk, _mb Literacy How, Inc. 28
Varient Consonant Letters C, a, o, u “c” = /k/ When “c” is followed by “a, ” “o, ” “u” or a consonant letter, it make the sound /k/. C, e, i, y = /s/ When “c” is followed by “e, ” “i, ” or “y”, it make the sound /s/. Literacy How, Inc. 29
Varient Consonant Letters g, a, o, u “c” = /g/ When “g” is followed by “, . ” “o, ” “u” or a consonant letter, it make the sound /g/. g, e, i, y = /j/ /g/ When “g” is followed by “e” “i, ” or “y”, it make the sound /j/. Literacy How, Inc. 30
4. Spelling Strategy “snap” says word “s” “n” “a” “p” (segments sounds) /s//n//a//p/ (names letters) “s” “n” “a” “p” (writes letters) “snap” (says word)
• What is a syllable? We speak syllable by syllable and not phoneme by phoneme; the phonemes in a syllable overlap and are not spoken one at a time like letters are written one at a time and separated by a space. /c/ /a/ /t/
What is a syllable? • A syllable is a unit of speech that includes one vowel sound. • There is a syllable for each vowel sound in a word. • Recognizing the letter pattern within a syllable can help the reader overcome the need to sound out each phoneme one at a time.
Vowel Syllable Patterns • A syllable is a word or part of a word with one vowel sound • Every syllable has one and only one vowel sound, but may have more than one vowel letter e. g. head • Some syllables have more than one vowel letter (e. g. , cake, meat, pie) • A syllable must contain a vowel sound but may not have a consonant (e. g. , I, a, o pen, • u nit) Literacy How, Inc. 34 • There are six syllable types
Syllable Types • By identifying the type of syllable, the reader can process and decode the entire syllable simultaneously without having to blend the sounds one at a time. • Requires a lot of practice. �
Syllable Types • With 26 letters we can create thousands of different syllables depending upon the letters we select and the order in which we place them. ( about 3, 000) • With 10 digits we can create an infinite number of numerals depending upon the digits we select and the order in which we place them.
Syllable Types • Syllable types can be likened to our place value system of numeration. • We can compare knowing what the vowel letter will do in a syllable to knowing what the value of a digit is in a numeral.
Syllable Types • The vowel letters represent different sounds depending upon which letters appear after them (and the number). • Digits represent a different value depending upon the (number of) digits that appear after them.
English is not Perfectly Phonetic. safe march stain saw napkin Literacy How, Inc. 39
• The phoneme the letter “a” represents in the above syllables depends upon the letters that come after it. • The letters that come before it do not matter in determining the phoneme a vowel letter represents. Literacy How, Inc. 40
Six Syllable Types for Decoding and Encoding C closed VC at O open V he V vowel teams VV rain, cow E silent e Vce ate R r controlled Vr for S final stable syllable [Cle [tion crumble action That about COVERS it! Literacy How, Inc. 41
Closed Syllables with: Single Consonants na p us bi g Consonant Digraphs Consonant blends and tri-graphs inch trust bath string chum pick shell clock stink spot when “When a consonant comes after a vowel, the vowel makes its (short) sound. ”
(Short) Vowel Sounds a o A e e
Short vowel spellings are highly predictable CVC closed syllable pattern /a/ at, apple (97%) /e/ elephant, bed (91%) head /u/ up, umbrella (86%) /o/ on, octopus (79%) /I/ it, inch gym (68%) (23%)
For any given syllable • When a consonant comes after the vowel, the vowel makes its (short) sound.
Open Syllable (Vowel Names/Long Vowel Sound) no ho tel • me me ter • hi tu lip • When nothing comes after the vowel (in a syllable), the vowel says its name (long sound).
Silent (Magic) “E” Syllable • Stone in vite • Brave com pose • Chime ath lete
Silent-e/”Magic “e” Syllable • When a single consonant and an “e” come after a vowel at the end of a syllable, the vowel says its name (or long sound) and the “e” is silent. • When a single consonant and another vowel (usually an “e” in single syllable words) comes after a vowel, the vowel says its name (or long sound).
Double Vowel Syllable • • • stain tree Pie boat true pray neat Regular toe fruit ---------------------------------------- haul saw caught dead weight fight shout clown boil toy Irregular
Double Vowel Syllables • When two vowels come together in a syllable, the first vowel says its name (or long sound), and the second vowel is silent (only about 50% of the time) • Although there are two vowels, it is only syllable since one of the vowels does not represent a phoneme.
Vowel teams - digraphs “talkers” “whiners” • • • ai (96% pain, chair) ay (96% say) oa (94% boat) ee (98% see, steer) ey (58% key; 20% convey; 12% geyser) • ea (51% seat; 26% head) • ui (53% fruit; 47% build) • ie (17% pie; 51% chief; 15% patient) • • • aw (100% hawk) oi (98% oil) oy (98% boy) ew (95% few) au (94% saucer) oo (59% food; 36% foot) ow (50% snow; 48% how) ou (40% trouble; 35% house) ei (40% reign; 26% deceit; 13% foreign)
Long vowel spellings are not predictable /a/ apron open syllable 45% ate VCe 35% rain, hay V team great, vein, eight, weight /e/ he open syllable 70% see, teeth V team 10% eat V team 10% key, receive V team baby, babies, Pete /I/ tiger open syllable my open syllable 23% ice, type CVe ie, igh V team 68% /o/ go open syllable 73% hope, rope CVe 14% oat V team 10% low V team toe V team
• The good news is that there are not a lot of “Double” Vowel” syllables in mulit-syllable words. If the vowel sound of a first or middle syllable of a multisyllable word is long, it is an open syllable. If the vowel sound of the final syllable of a multi-syllable word is long it will be a “Silent-e” syllable. Compound words (oatmeal) have “Double Vowel” syllables.
R-Controlled/”Bossy” r • When an “r” follows a vowel in a syllable, the vowel says something different (than its short or long sound) even though “r” is a consonant. • (Since “r” is a consonant letter, the vowel should make its (short) sound, but it does not due to articulation constraints.
“C” “l” “e”/Final Stable Syllable • bub/ble ta/ble por/tion • han/dle ti/tle na/ture • driz/zle cra/dle garb/age • gar/gle sta/ble vi/sion
“Consonant, ” “l, ” “e” Syllable • When a “consonant, ” “l, ” “e” is at the end of a word, it is a separate syllable.
Spelling Rules for One Syllable Words
“F” “L” O “SS” RULE stiff skill kiss bluff spell mess staff dull fuss -----------------------------------------wife mile parks scarf whirl beef meal teas
• 1. When do you double the final “f” “l” and “s? ”
ck, k, or ke ? • stick look make • deck blink bike • clock mask smoke • truck week duke • snack stink snake
• 2. When do you need to use “ck? ”
dge, ge? • dodge stage • range cage fudge huge • bridge stooge
• 3. When do you need to use “dge? ”
tch, ch? • match pooch • stitch inch • crutch branch • scotch
• 4. When do you use “tch? ”
• Spelling rules for derivative words • Spelling rules for words greater than one syllable
Doubling rule for derivatives • spinning winner crammed • printing printer printed • sneaking weaker melted ------------------------------ • hopping striped super • hoping • stripped supper
• 5. When and why do you double the final consonant?
Doubling rule for Multi-syllable Words • muffin funny silly • music pony hotel • rubber summer lilac • supper helmet napkin
• 6. When and why do you “double” the medial consonant?
Dropping Rule Derivative Words • saved save + ed • smiling smile + ing • driver drive + er --------------------------
• 7. When and why do you drop the final “silent e? ”
Spelling V/CV (70%) • hotel paper • minor baby • polite music
• 8. Why do the preceding words have only a single consonant between the two vowels?