Special Establishing Operations Ch 10 AGGRESSION Painestablished aggression

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Special Establishing Operations Ch 10

Special Establishing Operations Ch 10

AGGRESSION • Pain-established aggression • Extinction-established aggression

AGGRESSION • Pain-established aggression • Extinction-established aggression

Pain-established aggression in humans • Hit thumb with hammer • Throw hammer against wall

Pain-established aggression in humans • Hit thumb with hammer • Throw hammer against wall • Cursing

Pain-established aggression in other animals • Azrin, Hutchinson, & Hake (1966) • 2 rats

Pain-established aggression in other animals • Azrin, Hutchinson, & Hake (1966) • 2 rats in a chamber – mild aversive shock • Animals rear and begin to attack each other • When shock stopped, they stop fighting

Extinction-established aggression in humans?

Extinction-established aggression in humans?

Extinction-established aggression in pigeons • 2 Pigeons, 1 free to peck key (A), the

Extinction-established aggression in pigeons • 2 Pigeons, 1 free to peck key (A), the other restrained (B) • Pigeon A pecks key –> each peck is followed by grain –> ignores pigeon B • Then grain stops coming • What does pigeon A do with respect to pigeon B? ? ? ?

Aversive Conditions as Establishing Operations Before: No aggression reinforcers ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Pain

Aversive Conditions as Establishing Operations Before: No aggression reinforcers ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Pain or extinction Behavior: After: Aggression reinforcers

Aggression Reinforcers? • The results of the aggression itself serve as reinforcers – Feel

Aggression Reinforcers? • The results of the aggression itself serve as reinforcers – Feel of throwing the hammer – Sound of it’s hitting the wall – Feel and sound of shouting – Pressure on teeth and claws (rat) – Pressure on beak and wings (pigeon)

General Case Aversive-Condition-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: After: No agg reinforcers Aggressive Behavior Agg

General Case Aversive-Condition-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: After: No agg reinforcers Aggressive Behavior Agg reinforcers ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Pain or extinction

Human Being Pain-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: After: Sid has no aggression reinforcers Sid

Human Being Pain-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: After: Sid has no aggression reinforcers Sid throws hammer, curses ? ? ? ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Sid’s thumb really hurts

Rat Pain-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Rat has no pressure on teeth, claws ESTABLISHING OPERATION

Rat Pain-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Rat has no pressure on teeth, claws ESTABLISHING OPERATION ? ? ? Behavior: After: Rat bites & scratches Rat has pressure on teeth & claws

Human Being Extinction-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: ? ? ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Extinction of

Human Being Extinction-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: ? ? ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Extinction of computer behavior Behavior: After: Sid throws temper tantrum Sid has aggression reinforcers

Pigeon Extinction-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: Pigeon has no pressure on its beak &

Pigeon Extinction-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: Pigeon has no pressure on its beak & wings Pigeon attacks another pigeon ESTABLISHING OPERATION ? ? ? ? After: ? ? ?

Pigeon Extinction-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: After: Pigeon has no victim to aggress against

Pigeon Extinction-Established Reinforcement Contingency Before: Behavior: After: Pigeon has no victim to aggress against Pigeon pecks victim access key Pigeon has victim to aggress againts ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive condition: Pigeon’s food key pecks are extinguished

Aggression reinforcer • Stimuli resulting from acts of aggression

Aggression reinforcer • Stimuli resulting from acts of aggression

Aggression principle • Aversive stimuli and extinction are establishing operations for aggression reinforcers

Aggression principle • Aversive stimuli and extinction are establishing operations for aggression reinforcers

Why don’t we aggress all the time?

Why don’t we aggress all the time?

Is there evidence of a mental health benefit to letting off steam? • Page

Is there evidence of a mental health benefit to letting off steam? • Page 170 • Poetic metaphor for making aggression reinforcers more effective • Problem: People act as if this metaphor is real • No evidence that aggression has a mental health benefit for the aggressor • Aggression is usually harmful and dysfunctional

Passive Aggression? • Aversive stimulation establishes aggression as a reinforcer almost too sweet to

Passive Aggression? • Aversive stimulation establishes aggression as a reinforcer almost too sweet to resist, especially when you can make the aggression so subtle the victim barely detects that it’s happening.

Passive aggression, cont • The victim can’t put a label on it, can’t point

Passive aggression, cont • The victim can’t put a label on it, can’t point an accusing finger. And better yet, even the perpetrator of the aggression can’t selfcriticize because the aggression is too subtle even for him or her to detect.

In other words, • Often we’re not only unaware of why we aggress, but

In other words, • Often we’re not only unaware of why we aggress, but we’re even unaware that we are aggressing.

Passive aggression Before: Behavior: After: Dawn has no vagg reinforcer Dawn asks Sid an

Passive aggression Before: Behavior: After: Dawn has no vagg reinforcer Dawn asks Sid an embarrassing question Dawn has vagg reinforcer ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Dawn receives an aversively sweaty kiss

Passive aggression Before: Behavior: After: Sid has no vagg reinforcer Sid describes his great

Passive aggression Before: Behavior: After: Sid has no vagg reinforcer Sid describes his great run Sid has vagg reinforcer ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Sid receives aversive question

Drug Addiction • What maintains drug abuse, the presentation of a reinforcer or the

Drug Addiction • What maintains drug abuse, the presentation of a reinforcer or the reduction of an aversive condition? • Addictive reinforcers are unlearned reinforcers prior to addiction • Is suffering necessary? No • A monkey will press a lever that produces a shot of morphine. PERIOD.

Addictive Reinforcer • A reinforcer for which repeated exposure is an establishing operation –

Addictive Reinforcer • A reinforcer for which repeated exposure is an establishing operation – repeated exposure increases value • Dangerous drugs: heroin, morphine, cocaine, speed, barbiturates, alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, caffeine, rock & roll

Escape from pain Before: Behavior: After: Patient has pain P. pushes button P. has

Escape from pain Before: Behavior: After: Patient has pain P. pushes button P. has less pain Before: Behavior: After: No injection P. pushes button P. has morphine injection ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Patient suffers pain

Escape from poverty Before: Person suffers from poverty Before: P. Has no heroin ESTABLISHING

Escape from poverty Before: Person suffers from poverty Before: P. Has no heroin ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Person suffers from poverty Behavior: After: P. Shoots up P. Suffers less from poverty Behavior: After: P. Shoots up P. Has heroin Life is psychologically unbearable, taking heroin reduces aversiveness.

Escape from withdrawal Before: Behavior: After: Patient has withdrawal P. requests morphine P. has

Escape from withdrawal Before: Behavior: After: Patient has withdrawal P. requests morphine P. has less intense withdrawal Before: Behavior: After: No injection P. pushes button P. has morphine injection ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Patient suffers withdrawal

Escape from pain Before: Behavior: After: Patient has no morphine injection P. pushes button

Escape from pain Before: Behavior: After: Patient has no morphine injection P. pushes button P. has a morphine injections ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Patient suffers from withdrawal

Pure Pleasure of Drugs Before: Monkey has no injection ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Monkey

Pure Pleasure of Drugs Before: Monkey has no injection ESTABLISHING OPERATION Aversive Condition: Monkey has not had morphine Behavior: After: Monkey presses lever Monkey has morphine injection

Addictive Reinforcer • A reinforcer for which repeated exposure is an establishing operation –

Addictive Reinforcer • A reinforcer for which repeated exposure is an establishing operation – repeated exposure increases value • Dangerous drugs: heroin, morphine, cocaine, speed, barbiturates, alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, caffeine, rock & roll