Spatial Models of Urban Land Use Ch 13
Spatial Models of Urban Land Use (Ch. 13)
Analyzing Urban Models Concentric Zone • Benefits (pros) • Drawbacks (cons)
Concentric Zone Model 1920 s (Burgess) – land-use pattern follows concentric rings around city center (CBD) Newest settlers in city use older housing near city center (migrants to industrial jobs) Previous groups move outward to higher-income areas (suburbs)
Concentric Zone Model Invasion and Succession: Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups. Newest settlers in city use older housing near city center (migrants to industrial jobs) Previous groups move outward to higher-income areas (suburbs)
Concentric Zone Model Based on class and the bid-rent curve.
Concentric Zone Model Bid-rent
Sector Model 1939 (Hoyt) - Land use = pieshaped wedges radiating from CBD High-income areas along fashionable boulevards, waterfronts, or high ground Industry along river or rails Low-income near industry Middle-income between low and high sectors
Hoyt Sector Model Based on class. It describes social structure based on transportation systems rather than distance from the CBD.
Analyzing Urban Models Sector Model • Benefits (pros) • Drawbacks (cons)
Multiple-Nuclei Model Post WW 2 - Early days of suburbanization Downtown CBD not only core of business land use Other nuclei develop special retail districts, office parks, light manufacturing in city Metro areas develop “suburban downtowns” (called “edge cities”) - Tech Center
Multiple Nuclei Model
Industrial Parks • Much of the growth in industry since WWII has taken place in “Industrial Parks” Definition: Industrial Park – A planned development designed to insure compatibility between industrial operations within and between the industrial tenants and the surrounding community • Attempt to change image of industrial land uses: usually park or campus-like character with landscaped buffer zones
Industrial Park Strategies • Zoning, utilities, and sometimes generic rental space provided • Earliest parks established by railroads in Chicago – 1899 Clearing Industrial District – 1905 Central Manufacturing District • Very slow growth of the concept until after WWII – 1940 35 parks in all of USA – 1960 250 parks – By 1980, more than 2, 500 • Most all parks are outside American Manufacturing Belt – California, Texas, Florida, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have the most
4 Main Types of Parks. . a. Traditional Park Focus on light manufacturing, assembly, distribution, warehousing – not on heavy manufacturing Example: Great Southwest Industrial Park in the Dallas – Ft. Worth “Metroplex” • Easy highway and air access (fly-in concept!) • Plentiful flat land • Average firm is very small • 50% of all tenant firms have less than 10 emps • 75% have less than 50 emps
4 Main Types of Parks. . b. Research Park – – These have mostly flopped! One of the successful ones: Research Triangle Park in N. C. – – – Amenities important (Natural and Cultural) Draw from academic community Federal Government helped by locating research operations of several agencies here
4 Main Types of Parks c. Science or Technology Park – – – Hybrid Type Partly a Research Park-- but not so restrictive; warehousing, distribution, light manufacturing, assembly Especially important in “High Tech” industries: Electronics, Aerospace, Optics, etc. Boston region: – Silicon (Santa Clara) Valley in California – d. Business Park Combo of Industrial and Office Park
Analyzing Urban Models Multiple Nuclei • Benefits (pros) • Drawbacks (cons)
Problems with all these models: 1. Too simple 2. Do not take into account modern transportation corridors. 3. Availability of cars not considered. 4. Outer cities became independent and created suburban downtowns. 5. Creation of edge cities loosen ties to central city. 6. American suburbs surpassed central cities in total employment by 1973.
More problems… 7. Urban patterns are shaped by an economic trade-off between the desire to live in a suburban neighborhood appropriate to ones economic status and the need to live relatively close to the CBD for employment opportunities. 8. Assume only one person in the family is a wage worker. Ignore dual income families and households headed by single women who different considerations (childcare). 9. All created by men who shared assumptions about how cities operate – thus presented a partial view of urban life.
Urban sprawl – contemporary problem Low-density “leapfrog” developments beyond urban edge Lack of coordinated planning between jurisdictions Consequence of car-dependent urban growth
Analyzing Urban Models Concentric Zone 1. 2. 3. 4. • Benefits (pros) Reflects historical movement Pattern can still be seen today. All cities have a CBD Similar to von Thunen.
Analyzing Urban Models Concentric Zone • Drawbacks (cons) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Based on Chicago of 1900. Reflects perception of US cities but not the reality. Does not exist in its pure form the US. Upper and Middle classes are moving back into urban center Too simple. Over emphasized residential patterns, and does not give credit other land uses. 7. Assumes there is a strong central city. 8. Urban growth and development proceeds outward from a single central core.
Analyzing Urban Models Sector Model • Benefits (pros) 1. Patterns still seen today. 2. More realistic. 3. Can show ethnic variations.
Analyzing Urban Models Sector Model 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • Drawbacks (cons) Does not reflect modern cities. Too simple. Areas around highways tend to be low rent districts. Assumes there is a strong central city. Urban growth and development proceeds outward from a single central core.
Analyzing Urban Models Multiple Nuclei • Benefits (pros) 1. Takes into account varied factors of decentralization into the structure of the North America city. 2. Encompasses a larger spectrum of economic and social factors. 3. Takes ‘car’ into account.
Analyzing Urban Models Multiple Nuclei • Drawbacks (cons) 1. Too simple 2. Equal weight given to all nodes.
Contemporary urban trends “New Urbanism” Town Center, Highlands Ranch
Words associated w/ but not used in the definition Definition Gentrificatio n A non-example w/ explanation An example w/ explanation
Contemporary urban trends Gentrification and Downtown Revitalization