Spanish Missions Life in the Spanish Missions What
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Spanish Missions Life in the Spanish Missions
What is a Mission? • Mission- settlement set up in Indian Territory – Built by Friars (members of the clergy) – The Spanish did not like the idea of a French fort in the New World so they created the missionpresidio system to gain control. • Presidio- forts that offered protection for the mission from unfriendly Native Americans
GOALS OF THE MISSIONS • To transform Native Americans into Christians and loyal Spanish subjects – They taught them about: • Christianity • Language and customs of Spain • Spanish farming methods
First Mission • Corpus Christi de la Ysleta – Founded in 1682 – at present day El Paso – Among the Tigua culture
San Francisco de los tejas • Alonso de Leon and Father Damian Massanet founded this mission near the Caddo in 1690 • After a peaceful beginning, the Natives soon became ill from diseases and experienced floods that the Native Americans blamed on the Spanish presence. They want to kill the Spanish. • The Spanish abandon the mission.
St. Denis & Father Hildago • 1711 – begin building missions in East Texas • Established six Spanish missions and a presidio
THE Chicken war • 1719 – Spain and France go to war in Europe and this spreads to their colonies in the New World • The French really are not a threat but the Spanish do not realize this • The Spanish abandon the East Texas missions as a result
THE ALAMO • Another famous mission is San Antonio de Valero. The presidio near it was San Antonio de Bexar, known as the Alamo.
Recruiting NATIVE AMERICANS 1. In general, the Native Americans came by choice 2. They were offered gifts by the Friars 3. Provided a steady source of food 4. Provided protection from other Indian attacks
Religious Instruction • Key purpose was to convert Indians to Catholic religion (learn the Catechism) • Indians were forced to follow a rigid schedule • Workday begins at dawn • Religious meetings daily, prayers, morning, noon, and evening
Daily Work • • • Settling in one place, farming Raised livestock Helped build missions Skilled masons, stone carvers Sew clothes Blacksmithing
Inside the Missions • Shaped as a rectangle - easier to protect, out-look posts on all four corners • Well in the center of the courtyard-easy access, central location • Chapel- MOST important thing about the mission • Friars and Indians had different living quarters because they were separated by religious social class
INSIDE THE MISSIONs • Gardens/pasture for animals- grew their own food and raised livestock • Everyone was educated, thought that would help make the Indians more civilized • Trade frequently- sewing, weaving, blacksmiths, carpentry, pottery
Problems with the Missions • • DISEASE Lived in close quarters Indians had no defense for diseases Diseases that would make the Spanish ill, but would kill the Native Americans Entire tribes would die out (epidemics)
Problems with the missions REJECTION OF MISSION LIFE • Some joined the Spanish culture and accepted the Catholic religion as their own. • Some Native Americans would not conform to the Spanish way of life. Many would leave during hunting season or just run away. • Friars would just go find the Native Americans and bring them back.
Problems with the missions • False friendliness • Other Native American attacks • Stealing horses, raiding goods
LIFE OF SOLDIERS • Life was tough, work was hard • Many duties (protection, guard livestock, supply wagon trains, etc. ) • Some brought families with them but this was rare
LEGACY OF THE MISSIONs • Ranching • Words (bronco, lasso, vaquero) • Spanish language • Architecture