SOUTHWEST ASIA MIDDLE EAST SS 7 G 6

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SOUTHWEST ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) SS 7 G 6: The student will discuss environmental issues

SOUTHWEST ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) SS 7 G 6: The student will discuss environmental issues across SW Asia (Middle East)

VOCABULARY • • • LANDLOCKED IRRIGATION UNDERGROUND AQUIFIERS FOSSIL WATER DRIP IRRIGATION DESALINATION HYDROELECTRIC

VOCABULARY • • • LANDLOCKED IRRIGATION UNDERGROUND AQUIFIERS FOSSIL WATER DRIP IRRIGATION DESALINATION HYDROELECTRIC POWER NATURAL RESOURCES OPEC BEDOUINS QANATS

The Rivers of SW Asia • All the rivers in this area are important

The Rivers of SW Asia • All the rivers in this area are important because much of this part of the world is dry and desert • The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers come together and form the boundary between Kuwait and Iran • At the northern end of the Red Sea, ships can enter the man made Suez Canal which allows them to get to the Mediterranean Sea without having to sail around the continent of Africa • The Strait of Hormuz connects the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea

WATER • Water is an important natural resource that is NOT evenly distributed in

WATER • Water is an important natural resource that is NOT evenly distributed in the area • Turkey and Iraq share the Tigris-Euphrates river system • Israel, Syria, and Jordan share the Jordan River • Many types of irrigation is used as farmers try to bring water to their fields from local rivers or underground aquifers (layers of underground rock where water runoff from rain is trapped)

WATER • Israel and Saudi Arabia have developed drip irrigation (using computers that measure

WATER • Israel and Saudi Arabia have developed drip irrigation (using computers that measure how much water each plant receives) • Desalination (the process of removing salt and other chemicals from seawater) is used to provide drinking and irrigation water; it is a very expensive process

WATER • Many farmers have used chemical fertilizers which have contaminated water supplies •

WATER • Many farmers have used chemical fertilizers which have contaminated water supplies • Constant planting and fertilizer use have led to a build up of salt in the soils making it impossible to farm those areas • Dams built along rivers to create lakes for irrigation and hydroelectric power has reduced the water available to countries located downstream causing conflict

SOUTHWEST ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) SS 7 G 7: The student will explain the impact

SOUTHWEST ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) SS 7 G 7: The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution in SW Asia (Middle East)

Oil • Two of the most important natural resources (resources found in the earth)

Oil • Two of the most important natural resources (resources found in the earth) found in SW Asia are natural gas and oil • Over half of the world’s known oil reserves are found in this area • The oil has made these countries very rich and given them control over the global economy • OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) group of SW Asian countries joined together to control the oil including the price • The most oil rich countries are Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, and Kuwait

Land Areas • River systems – There are three major river systems – Many

Land Areas • River systems – There are three major river systems – Many of the large cities are located near the river systems – Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Kuwait share the Euphrates River • Desert areas: many make a living by trading animals and handmade goods with those who live in the towns (Bedouins) • The countries generally have a very hot and dry climate • Mountain ranges block the wind and rain from the ocean causing the interior of SW Asia to be desert •

Water • Water is a critical resource • The Tigris and Euphrates rivers run

Water • Water is a critical resource • The Tigris and Euphrates rivers run through more than one country causing conflict between the countries because everyone needs water and there is a limited amount • The people have built canals, qanats (underground tunnels that bring water from the hills) and water wheels to bring water for irrigation