- Slides: 9
Background • Charter granted by King Charles II in 1663 • Began as just CAROLINA, not split into North and South YET • Power in the Carolinas was split between 8 nobles called the “Lord Proprietors” • These nobles were selected because they did something to help King Charles retake throne in England ( REVIEW TIME – WHO DID CHARLES TAKE POWER FROM AND WHY? ) • granted power to establish civil structures, to collect taxes and duties, and to maintain order, as well as to have certain game and mineral ownership. • Mostly incompetent – led to many folks not wanting to move there, and also conflict with natives.
The (banana) Split • Divide grows between north and south part of Carolinas • Two different populations • North Consisted mainly of small tobacco farmers from Virginia. Small family farms. • Many former indentured servants who acquired small plots of land • Became annoyed because people in the south looked down on them • Slavery not as prominent • South Rich farmers with hugeeeee plantations • These huge plantations needed a lot of workers…guess who works these farms and produces all the wealth? ? ? • Headquarters located in Charleston • Because of these differences, a split was decided (probably) in 1712, and both flourished separately.
Maryland • Rich in natural resources : forests, fish, and good farming land. Plantations grew tobacco, cotton, corn, vegetables, grains, and fruit. Livestock was also commonly raised in the Maryland Colony • Lord Baltimore (Sir George Calvent) given a charter in early 1632 by Protestant King Charles II, essentially as a way to get him out of England • Rising political star until he converts to Catholicism • Goes to US for religious freedom for Catholics…. . oh and he dies later in 1632 • Charter given to his son Cecil Calvert, who becomes the new Lord Baltimore
Act of Toleration (1689) • Freedom of religion to protect Catholics and protestants in Maryland • Early form of the first amendment – “free exercise of religion” • Made it illegal to talk about another persons religion in disparaging way (Not quite at the freedom of speech thing yet) • Interestingly, it made it illegal to talk bad or blaspheme God • The state of Maryland did restrict this act at numerous points in history though……so, folks still were not totally tolerant.
Background • English Debt Law – people who owed money to the English crown could be put in jail until the debt was repaid (yeeesh). • Can they pay off the debt then? We got a problem • SOLUTION: Let’s create a colony where prisoners work off their debt as essentialy slave labor • Main leader: James Oglethorpe • Georgia also served as barrier • Spanish Florida to the South • 13 th colony