- Slides: 91
Southeast Asia: History
Indian Influence in Southeast Asia: Page 602 • Southeast Asia has been inhabited since pre-historic times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures and kingdoms with varying degrees of occupation and influence from India and China.
Indian Influence in Southeast Asia: Page 602 • The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two categories. The first is agrarian kingdoms, which are based on agriculture. The second is maritime kingdoms, which are based on sea trade. • Most agrarian kingdoms were located on mainland southeast Asia. One example is the Khmer Empire.
• The Khmer Empire was an ancient kingdom of SE Asia in the 6 th century. The Cambodians, or Khmers migrated from India, established an empire in what is today Cambodia and Laos. • The capital was established in the area of Angkor. Khmer Empire The Hindu Angkor Wat temple, the largest temple in the world, was built in the 1100 s AD.
• The Angkor period (889– 1434), the golden age of Khmer civilization, saw the empire at its greatest extent. • The Khmer civilization was largely formed by Indian cultural influences. Buddhism flourished side by side with the worship of Shiva and other Hindu gods. Khmer Empire The Hindu Angkor Wat temple, the largest temple in the world, was built in the 1100 s AD.
• The greatest achievements of the Khmers was in architecture and sculpture. • In 1434, after the Thai captured Angkor. This event marks the end of the brilliance of the Khmer civilization. Khmer Empire The Hindu Angkor Wat temple, the largest temple in the world, was built in the 1100 s AD.
The Arrival of Islam • Muslim traders started to visit Southeast Asia in the Twelfth Century CE. Pasai was the first Muslim kingdom. • The Sultanate of Malacca, founded by a Srivijayan prince, rose to prominence with the support of China Malacca Sultanate Palace is an exquisite piece of Malay architecture and assumed Srivijaya’s and is a replica of the original 15 th century palace of Malacca's extinct role. Sultanate.
The Arrival of Islam • Islam spread throughout the archipelago in the 13 th and 14 th century at the expense of Hinduism with Malacca functioning (after its rulers converted) as the center of Islam in the region. Malacca Sultanate Palace is an exquisite piece of Malay architecture and is a replica of the original 15 th century palace of Malacca's extinct Sultanate.
The Arrival of the Europeans: pg 645 • Europeans first came to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century. It was the lure of trade and spices that brought Europeans to Southeast Asia. Christianity and Islam • Portugal was the first Philip II, King of Spain 1556 - European power to establish 1598, (1527 -1598): If people have to be categorized, Philip IIthemselves in the lucrative of Spain could be placed with Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf. Southeast Asia trade with the Hitler. All three inflicted death conquest of the Sultanate of and destruction upon numerous people and nations. Malacca in 1511.
The Arrival of the Europeans: pg 645 • The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon overcame Portugal as the main European powers in the region. • The Dutch, acting through the Dutch East India Company took over Malacca from the Philip II, King of Spain 15561598, (1527 -1598): If people Portuguese in 1641 while Spain have to be categorized, Philip II of Spain could be placed with began to colonize the Philippines Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler. All three inflicted death (named after Philip II of Spain) in and destruction upon the 1560 s. numerous people and nations.
Britain, in the form of the British East India Company, came relatively late onto the scene. They temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars and in 1819 established Singapore as the key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch.
By 1913, the British occupied Burma, Malaya, and the Borneo territories, The French controlled Indochina (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia), the Dutch ruled the Netherlands East Indies (much of today’s Indonesia), The U. S. conquered the Philippines from Spain, and Portugal still managed to hold on to the island of Timor. Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule even though they were influenced by the western powers.
Colonization, Good or Bad? • Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia. While the colonial powers profited much from the region's vast resources and large market, colonial rule did develop the region to a certain extent.
Colonization, Good or Bad? • A network of roads, bridges, and railroads was built. • Modern schools and universities were constructed. • Formalized governments and judicial systems were put in place. • However, cash crop farming was enforced which benefited the West but caused rice production to fall leaving the people without enough to eat.
Free at last ! East Timor Independence Rally - August 1999 • Indonesia declared independence on August 17, 1945 and then fought a bitter war against the Dutch. • The Philippines were granted independence in 1946. • Burma secured theirs from Britain in 1948. • The French were driven from Indochina in 1954 after a bitterly fought war against the Vietnamese nationalists.
Free at last ! East Timor Independence Rally - August 1999 • Others soon followed. Britain ended its protectorate of the Sultanate of Brunei in 1984 marking the end of western rule in Southeast Asia. • In 1975, Portuguese rule ended in East Timor. However, independence didn’t last long as Indonesia annexed the territory soon after. It wasn’t until 2002 until East Timor gained its formal independence.
Vietnam and War: Pg 655 • China ruled Vietnam until 939 AD, then took over again until 1428. Chinese built roads and waterways, metal plows, farm animals, and irrigation methods. However, Vietnamese protected their own culture and traditions. Vietnam hasn’t seen peace and growth since 1428.
Vietnam and War: Pg 655 • 1858 Napoleon of France invaded Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. (Indochina) and colonized it! • France took majority of resources. Most people were poor farmers who couldn’t afford land. • After WWII, Vietnam organized under Ho Chi Minh (communist leader) to fight for independence. • France tried to hang on to it, but needed help. Asked US to help.
Lessons of a Lost War (see video after this slide) • The US was worried about the spread of communism (Domino Theory!), sent money and weapons. Never declared war!!! • In 1954 an agreement was signed to divide Vietnam into Communist North Vietnam and US supported South Vietnam. The US jumped in on the fight after the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Lessons of a Lost War (see video after this slide) • US sent in military support to South Vietnam to fight against the Viet Cong, or North Vietnamese. • 1965 US started bombing North Vietnam. • US President Lyndon B. Johnson continued to increase US troops in Vietnam. By 1973 the US public grew tired of seeing troops die on TV (1 st war publicly viewed on TV. )
End of War: Nixon (See Video) Pg 657 • Richard M. Nixon ran on the platform promising the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. After being elected as president, he slowly decreased the number of troops as Vietnam and Cambodia continued to be bombed.
End of War: Nixon (See Video) Pg 657 • By 1975 North Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh’s troops overran South Vietnam. The end of the war was signaled by the fall of South Vietnam’s capitol, Saigon, which was renamed Ho Chi Minh City after the war.
End of War: Nixon (See Video) Pg 657 • Many South Vietnamese people were punished for supporting democracy. Hundreds of thousands South Vietnamese fled as refugees to the United States and other surrounding countries.
Vietnam Today: Pg 658 -659 • Vietnam is now a communist nation, which people elect representatives to the national assembly, then chooses a prime minister. The Politburo heads the communist political party.
Vietnam Today: Pg 658 -659 • Government owns and runs industries, services and economy: restricts trade with other nations. • Educated people fled after the war. Most people are poor farmers. • In order to improve the economy, Vietnam encouraged more private control of some industries. More supply and demand.
Farming, Industry and Homes • Gov’t owns all land, but farmers can work it as they choose. Most grow rice, the primary agricultural product. Food processing, especially seafood, is exported to Japan, Germany and US (US started trading again in 1994)
Farming, Industry and Homes • Biggest boost to economy: international trade and allowing foreign businesses to invest, set up companies in Vietnam. • Some families live in cities live in apartments. Common for extended families to live together.
Farming, Industry and Homes • Most people are poor and live in rural areas. Wooden or bamboo homes or on houseboats.
Philippines • Spain originally colonized the Philippines for natural resources (Part of the Spice Islands/ Spice Route) • Established Spanish as main language. Only Christian country in SE Asia (Catholic) (Pg 645) 90% of Philippino are Christian.
Philippines • US won the Spanish-American war (1898): Fighting over Cuba: was awarded Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico • After WWII Philippines was granted their independence from the US. Democracy • Video on Life in the Philippians.
• In 1965 Ferdinand Marcos was elected president. However, once in power, he stole money from the treasury and ruled more like a dictator. Life was difficult under his rule.
• Imelda Marcos owned MANY shoes. She had 2, 700 pairs or 5, 400 shoes when she left the Philippines in 1986. “If Imelda Marcos changed her shoes three times a day, and never wore the same pair twice, it would take her more than two years and five months to work through her shoe supply--as it existed on the day she fled Manila. ”
• After 20 years of ruling harshly with limited personal freedom, Marcos was forced out of office by Corazon Aquino in 1986. She became president.
Pol Pot: Leader of Death and Destruction • Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 -April 15, 1998), better known as Pol Pot, was the ruler of the Khmer Rouge Party and the Prime Minister of Cambodia from 1976 to 1979.
Pol Pot: Leader of Death and Destruction • During his time in power Pol Pot created an aggressive regime of agricultural reform, designed to create a utopian Communist society which was known for repressing intellectuals.
Pol Pot: Leader of Death and Destruction • Today the excesses of his government are widely blamed for causing the deaths of up to two million Cambodians. (Genocide!)
Cambodian Genocide • Pol Pot's regime killed between 1. 5 to 2. 3 million people between 19751979, out of a population of approximately 8 million.
Cambodian Genocide • The regime targeted Buddhist monks, Western educated intellectuals, people who appeared to be intelligent (for example, individuals with glasses), the crippled and lame, and ethnic minorities like ethnic Laotians and Vietnamese.
Cambodian Genocide The skulls and bones of just a fraction of Pol Pot’s victims—many of whom were shackled and forced to dig their own mass grave.
One Vision of a Communist Utopia • The Khmer Rouge ordered the complete evacuation of Phnom Penh and all other major towns and cities. Those leaving were told that the evacuation was due to the threat of severe American bombing.
One Vision of a Communist Utopia • Pol Pot's regime had read the Marxist theory that cities are parasites on the countryside, that only labor value is true value. Therefore, immediately after they took power, the Khmer Rouge evacuated all the cities at gunpoint, including those who were not supposed to be moved, such as patients in hospitals and newborns.
One Vision of a Communist Utopia • The Khmer Rouge leadership boasted over their radio station that only one or two million people out of the population were needed to build the new agrarian communist utopia. As for the others, as their proverb put it, "if they survive, no gain; if they die, no loss. “
Is it Myanmar or Burma? • The name "Myanmar" comes from the two words "myan", which means "swift", and "ma", which means "strong". • In 1989, the military junta (military dictatorship form of government) officially changed the English version of its name from Burma to Myanmar.
Is it Myanmar or Burma? • The renaming proved to be politically controversial. Some disagree that the military junta had authority to "officially" change the name in English in the first place. After all, they lost the country’s first democratic election in over 30 years but refused to step down.
Is it Myanmar or Burma? • Acceptance of the name change in the English speaking world has been slow, with many people still using the name Burma to refer to the country. Major news organizations like the BBC and many western governments still officially refer to it as Burma.
The famous Shwe Dagon Pagoda in Myanmar is a Buddhist temple covered with gold.
South East Asia Summary
Population • Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 1. 6 million sq miles. • As of 2004, more than 593 million people lived in the region, well over a sixth of them on the Indonesian island of Java, the most densely populated island in the world.
Population • The Southeast Asian population is far from being homogeneous. It is extremely diverse as a result of being a crossroad of trade and years of colonization.
Java is part of what is known as “The Ring of Fire. ”
Religion • Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the arrival of traders from India and religious influences from the second century BC onwards.
Religion • Prior to the 13 th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia. • Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity are three most prominent religions today.
A stone image of the Buddha
Environment • Just like most other regions, Southeast Asia has environmental issues as well. • ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution is an environmental agreement signed in 2002 between ASEAN nations to bring haze pollution under control in Southeast Asia.
Environment • The agreement is a reaction to an environmental crisis that hit Southeast Asia in the late 1990 s. The crisis was mainly caused by land clearing via open burning on Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Environment • From Sumatra, the monsoon wind blew the smoke eastward. Thick haze covered much of Southeast Asia for weeks and caused noticeable health problems among the people.
Severe haze affecting Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in August 2005
Economy • The Southeast Asian islands are a major source of world petroleum supplies; the region is also a center for logging. • Southeast Asia is important to the world economy due to various reasons.
Economy • Singapore is the second busiest port in the world and a major financial and banking hub. It’s considered an Economic Tiger! • Malaysia is the world largest exporter of palm oil, and the world's largest producer and third largest exporter of semiconductor devices.
Economy • Indonesia is one of the largest producers of crude oil. • The Strait of Malacca between Malaysia and Indonesia is one of the most important waterways in the world. • However, in sharp contrast to the hub of economic development in those countries, there is continuous poverty in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam.
Economy Interesting that the communist countries with command economic systems are the poorest in region while democratic with a mixed economy is the richest!
Culture • Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand Laos, to Borneo, to Luzon in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea. • Dance in Southeast Asia also includes movement of the hands, as well as the feet. • Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favored form of entertainment in past centuries.
Culture • The Arts and Literature in Southeast Asia is deeply influenced by Hinduism brought to them centuries ago. In Indonesia and Malaysia, though they converted to Islam, they retained many forms of Hindu influenced practices, cultures, arts and literature.
Culture • An example is the Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet) and literature like the Ramayana (Sanskrit story of a prince whose wife is abducted by a demon).
Stilt houses in Myanmar