South East AsiaAfrica Ms Misuraca South East Asia

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South East Asia/Africa Ms. Misuraca

South East Asia/Africa Ms. Misuraca

 South East Asia lies east of India and South of China It has

South East Asia lies east of India and South of China It has the largest archipelago in the world - Indonesia

Mainland 5 independent nations (as of 2003) • Mayanmar (formerly Burma) • Cambodia •

Mainland 5 independent nations (as of 2003) • Mayanmar (formerly Burma) • Cambodia • Laos • Thailand • Vietnam

 • Mountainous and high plateaus – These separate SE Asia from Asia –

• Mountainous and high plateaus – These separate SE Asia from Asia – Geography separates people and cultures

Islands – 5 major independent nations (as of 2003) • Malaysia • Brunei (Bruni)

Islands – 5 major independent nations (as of 2003) • Malaysia • Brunei (Bruni) • Singapore • Indonesia • Philippines

Islands – cont. • Indonesia includes more than 13, 500 islands • Philippines has

Islands – cont. • Indonesia includes more than 13, 500 islands • Philippines has more than 7, 000 • Islands of SE Asia is on the Ring of Fire • Many people farm near active volcanoes because the ash has nutrients and makes the soil fertile

River Systems • • Irrawaddy Salween Chao Phraya (CHOW Prah YAH) Mekong – All

River Systems • • Irrawaddy Salween Chao Phraya (CHOW Prah YAH) Mekong – All 4 flow south • Red River – flows east – into the Gulf of Tonkin

Natural resources • Supplies about ½ of the worlds tin, aluminum, and nickel •

Natural resources • Supplies about ½ of the worlds tin, aluminum, and nickel • Indonesia and Brunei – oil and natural gas • Aggie - Rice – both to feed family and to sell • Rain forests – lumber • Original Spice Islands – coffee (Java), tea, coconuts, rubber, other spices

Religion • • • Hinduism Buddhism Islam Christianity Animism – similar to Japanese Shinto

Religion • • • Hinduism Buddhism Islam Christianity Animism – similar to Japanese Shinto – belief that spirits live in nature

Europeans Gain Power - Dutch • Dutch – Java – for coffee • With

Europeans Gain Power - Dutch • Dutch – Java – for coffee • With growing demand of coffee, Dutch set up a Culture System during 1800’s – Culture System – forced villages to set aside 1/5 of their land to grow cash crops. The farmers then had to sell it to the Dutch for a low price

Europeans Gain Power - Dutch • This system hurt the farmers – Were not

Europeans Gain Power - Dutch • This system hurt the farmers – Were not making a profit – Because of high demand of coffee, farmers neglected their rice crop • Lowered food and profit

Europeans Gain Power - British • • Took over Singapore and Malay Peninsula Took

Europeans Gain Power - British • • Took over Singapore and Malay Peninsula Took natural resources – metal Took lumber from rainforests Planted rubber trees – brought more over from Brazil – grows well in the climate

Europeans Gain Power - France • Took over Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos – Called

Europeans Gain Power - France • Took over Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos – Called it Indochina • Vietnam kept respect for women and women’s rights • Exploited their resources

Cambodia 1975 -1979

Cambodia 1975 -1979

Cambodia 1975 -1979 • After the Vietnam War, Cambodia was in turmoil • Pol

Cambodia 1975 -1979 • After the Vietnam War, Cambodia was in turmoil • Pol Pot (a communist leader) and his army seized the opportunity and took over on April 17, 1775 • The Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK), also known as the Khmer Rouge. • The CPK created the state of Democratic Kampuchea in 1976 and ruled the country until January 1979 • Pol Pot’s soldiers were mainly teenagers • Wanted to create an agricultural society – inspired by Mao

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • All foreigners were expelled, embassies clothes and foreign

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • All foreigners were expelled, embassies clothes and foreign medical or economical assistance was refused • Gov’t took over every aspect of life • Became an isolated state • All cities were evacuated (to rural areas) – 2 million were evacuated – 20, 000 died in transition

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • People began dying from being over worked and

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • People began dying from being over worked and under fed • Worked in the fields from 4 am – 10 pm • 10 -15 families lived together • Purges were also conducted to eliminate the “old society. ” – Educated, wealthy, Buddhists, police, dr. s, teacher and officials, etc.

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • Gatherings of more than 2 people were forbidden

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • Gatherings of more than 2 people were forbidden • Kids were taken away from their parents, put in to communals, then forced to marry • 20, 000 people were tortured into giving false confessions – most were shot • Ethnic groups were attacked – 3 largest: Vietnamese, Chinese, and Cham Muslim – 50% of Chinese were eliminated in 1975 (about 210, 000)

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • On Jan 7, 1979 – Vietnam overthrew Pol

Cambodia 1975 -1979 – cont. • On Jan 7, 1979 – Vietnam overthrew Pol Pot and installed their own puppet gov’t