South Asia South Asia by majority religion Pakistan

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South Asia

South Asia

South Asia by majority religion Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh India Hindu Islam Buddhism Sri

South Asia by majority religion Pakistan Nepal Bhutan Bangladesh India Hindu Islam Buddhism Sri Lanka Maldives

Introduction v Geopolitical tension religious division v v Hindu (India) Muslim (Pakistan) Demographic concerns

Introduction v Geopolitical tension religious division v v Hindu (India) Muslim (Pakistan) Demographic concerns high natural growth High population density v Limited resource bases v v Less connected to the global economy Slow economic growth v Inward orientation v

Environmental Geography Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

Environmental Geography Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

The Four Subregions of South Asia Mountains of the North Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Peninsular India

The Four Subregions of South Asia Mountains of the North Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Peninsular India The Southern Islands

Mountains of the North Mt. Everest v v Includes the world’s highest mountain Produced

Mountains of the North Mt. Everest v v Includes the world’s highest mountain Produced by the collision between tectonic plates seismically active

Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Brahmaputra R. Indus R. v v Ganges R. Created by three major

Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Brahmaputra R. Indus R. v v Ganges R. Created by three major river systems Population core areas

Peninsular India Gh ats Ea ste rn s hat n. G ster We Deccan

Peninsular India Gh ats Ea ste rn s hat n. G ster We Deccan Plateau v v Continuous Western Ghats narrow western coastal plains Discontinuous Eastern Ghats broad eastern coastal plains high population densities

The Southern Islands Sri Lanka: Maldives: Flat and low coral atolls Mountains in the

The Southern Islands Sri Lanka: Maldives: Flat and low coral atolls Mountains in the southern interior ringed by extensive coastal plains

Monsoon rain – June in Mumbai v During the summer monsoon, Mumbai receives more

Monsoon rain – June in Mumbai v During the summer monsoon, Mumbai receives more than 70 inches of rain in just three months

South Asia’s Climates v Most of South Asia has three distinct seasons v June

South Asia’s Climates v Most of South Asia has three distinct seasons v June – Oct. : warm and rainy season v Nov. – Feb: cool and dry season v Match – May: hot period v What is the major factor of this distinct season? Monsoon (Distinct seasonal change of wind direction)

Monsoons in South Asia Summer wet Winter dry Southwest monsoon Northeast monsoon

Monsoons in South Asia Summer wet Winter dry Southwest monsoon Northeast monsoon

Orographic rainfall wet Rain-shadow effect dry 10 inches • Orographic rainfall results from the

Orographic rainfall wet Rain-shadow effect dry 10 inches • Orographic rainfall results from the uplifting and cooling of moist monsoon winds over high mountains • Rainfall varies greatly from place to place Ganges Delta rice; Punjab wheat 451 inches

Flooding in Bangladesh Natural condition Ganges Delta • High precipitation • Low-lying land •

Flooding in Bangladesh Natural condition Ganges Delta • High precipitation • Low-lying land • Cyclone Man-made condition • High population density • Deforestation in the river headwater

Population and Settlement The Demographic Dilemma

Population and Settlement The Demographic Dilemma

v Soon will become the world’s most populous region High natural growth v Fertility

v Soon will become the world’s most populous region High natural growth v Fertility patterns vary by countries family planning v v India, Bangladesh vs. Pakistan One of the least urbanized regions in the world

Population distribution Fertile soils Dependable water supplies

Population distribution Fertile soils Dependable water supplies

v Pull factor: rural-to-urban migration v v Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta Push factor: refugees v

v Pull factor: rural-to-urban migration v v Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta Push factor: refugees v Afghanistan, Kashmir, Burma, Sri Lanka

Crop zones in South Asia Punjab Rice wet, fertile Wheat semiarid, fertile Millet, Sorghum

Crop zones in South Asia Punjab Rice wet, fertile Wheat semiarid, fertile Millet, Sorghum less fertile

Cattle in India v India has the world’s largest cattle population v They don’t

Cattle in India v India has the world’s largest cattle population v They don’t produce meat due to Hinduism v Rather, produce milk as major sources of protein v Also used for plowing and pulling carts

Major cities in South Asia Islamabad Lahore Delhi Karachi Calcutta Mumbai Dhaka

Major cities in South Asia Islamabad Lahore Delhi Karachi Calcutta Mumbai Dhaka

Major cities in South Asia v India Mumbai: financial center and media capital of

Major cities in South Asia v India Mumbai: financial center and media capital of India v Delhi: political capital (former Muslim capital, colonial capital) v Calcutta: trading center, declined after partition (1947) v v Pakistan Karachi: commercial core v Islamabad: forward capital – religious, and geopolitical v v Bangladesh v Dhaka: global center for clothing, and shoe manufacturing

Overurbanization in South Asia Mumbai hutments

Overurbanization in South Asia Mumbai hutments

Cultural Coherence and Diversity A Common Heritage Rent by Religious Rivalries

Cultural Coherence and Diversity A Common Heritage Rent by Religious Rivalries

v Long united by Hinduism v Caste v Arrival System of Islam v Religious

v Long united by Hinduism v Caste v Arrival System of Islam v Religious v British v Use rivalries between Hindu and Muslim imperialism of English due to multilingualism

Historic overview of South Asia 3000 B. C. 2000 B. C. 800 B. C.

Historic overview of South Asia 3000 B. C. 2000 B. C. 800 B. C. Indus Valley Invasion of Ganges Valley Civilization Indo-Aryan Civilization 1000 1600 A. D. Muslim rules Hinduism Caste System Buddhism Jainism Sikhism Islam

Religious diversity in South Asia v Hinduism (1500 B. C. ~) Indus valley civilization

Religious diversity in South Asia v Hinduism (1500 B. C. ~) Indus valley civilization + Indo-Aryan religion v Persist to present day (eg. Caste System); main religion in India v v Buddhism, Jainism (500 B. C. ~) v v Challenge to Hinduism orthodoxy Islam (1000 A. D. ~) Muslim rule in the north or trade network in the south v Active conversion from Hindus to Islam particularly in northwest (Pakistan) and northeast (Bangladesh) v v Sikhism (1400 A. D. ~) v Hinduism + Islam in Punjab(modern bnd b/w. India and

Geographies of Religion v Muslim rule Sikhism Hinduism v v India, S Nepal Islam

Geographies of Religion v Muslim rule Sikhism Hinduism v v India, S Nepal Islam Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives v 15% of India v Jainism Northeast v Sikhism: Punjab tribal area Goa v v Sri Lanka, Bhutan, NE Kashmir, N Nepal Jainism: Gujarat v Christian: Goa, NE India v Trade networks of the Arabian Sea Buddhism

Linguistic diversity in South Asia v Indo-European (north) v Iranian v Baluchi, Pashtun western

Linguistic diversity in South Asia v Indo-European (north) v Iranian v Baluchi, Pashtun western Pakistan, Afghanistan v Indo-Aryan v Closely associated with Indian states v Bengali, Punjabi Indian states with Bangladesh, eastern Pakistan v Singhalese, Divehi Sri Lanka, Maldives v Dravidian (south) v Confined to southern India

Geographies of Language Indo-European north Dravidian south

Geographies of Language Indo-European north Dravidian south

Linguistic Dilemmas v So many different languages in one country India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

Linguistic Dilemmas v So many different languages in one country India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka v India has 15 official languages with no unified national language v v Role of media v v Hindi is spreading through popular media Role of English v Main integrating language of India

South Asian global diaspora • British India: settlements in British colonies • Contemporary India:

South Asian global diaspora • British India: settlements in British colonies • Contemporary India: migrated into U. S. and North America

Geopolitical Framework A Deeply Divided Region

Geopolitical Framework A Deeply Divided Region

v British rule (mid 18 c ~ mid 20 c) v Independence and partition

v British rule (mid 18 c ~ mid 20 c) v Independence and partition v Separation of Pakistan from India (1947) v Separation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan (1971) v Continuing v Intensified tension between Pakistan and India by the nuclear capabilities of both

Mughal Empire (mid 16 c ~ mid 19 c) Muslim Portuguese Hindu Dutch

Mughal Empire (mid 16 c ~ mid 19 c) Muslim Portuguese Hindu Dutch

British Conquest (mid 18 c ~ mid 20 c) During chaotic waning years of

British Conquest (mid 18 c ~ mid 20 c) During chaotic waning years of the Mughal Empire (18 c), the British East India Company began to monopolize trade After Sepoy Rebellion (1856), South Asia was ruled directly by the British government

Independence and Partition • The British withdrew from South Asia in 1947 • The

Independence and Partition • The British withdrew from South Asia in 1947 • The region was divided into two countries: a Hindumajority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan (1947) • Bangladesh was separated from East Pakistan (1971)

Conflicts in Kashmir Hostility between Pakistan and India • Before the partition, this regions

Conflicts in Kashmir Hostility between Pakistan and India • Before the partition, this regions of predominantly Muslim population was ruled by a Hindu maharaja • Some Kashmirs wish to to join Pakistan while others argue for an independent state

Separatism in Punjab region Hostility between the Sikh majority and the Indian government Sikh-majority

Separatism in Punjab region Hostility between the Sikh majority and the Indian government Sikh-majority Punjab Hindu-majority Haryana • Sikh leaders strived for autonomy Sikh temple at Amritsar

Civil war in Sri Lanka Religious and linguistic differences Hindu Tamils : support political

Civil war in Sri Lanka Religious and linguistic differences Hindu Tamils : support political autonomy Buddhist Singhalese : favor unitary government

Global implication of the tension between India and Pakistan v During Cold War v

Global implication of the tension between India and Pakistan v During Cold War v v Pakistan – U. S. India –? Soviet Union After 1991 v Pakistan – China India v China’s v v animosity toward India Pakistan – Taliban Afghanistan After 9/11 v Pakistan – U. S. Taliban Afghanistan v But anti-Americanism in Pakistan needs to be addressed

Economic and Social Development Burdened by Poverty

Economic and Social Development Burdened by Poverty

South Asian Poverty v Disparity between social classes v World-class scientific and technological accomplishments

South Asian Poverty v Disparity between social classes v World-class scientific and technological accomplishments v Largest undernourished and malnourished people v Developmental contradictions in economic history v Land of great riches until the early modern period v Exploitation by external forces v Central Asian, the British

The poorest world region along with Sub-Saharan Africa v Pessimism: undercut by large and

The poorest world region along with Sub-Saharan Africa v Pessimism: undercut by large and growing population v Optimism: globally interconnected IT industry v

The Himalayan countries v Disadvantaged by their rugged terrain and remote locations v Bhutan

The Himalayan countries v Disadvantaged by their rugged terrain and remote locations v Bhutan v Isolationist policy v Nepal v Closely integrated with the Indian economy v Relies heavily on international tourism

Bangladesh v Bad news Burdened by massive population, environmental degradation, and colonial legacy v

Bangladesh v Bad news Burdened by massive population, environmental degradation, and colonial legacy v Devastating effect of partition (1947) v Increasingly uncompetitive Jute market v v Good news Competitive in textile manufacture low wage rate v Falling birthrate economic growth begins to catch up with its population growth v

Pakistan v Current potential Productive agricultural sector (eg. Punjab) v Large textile industry huge

Pakistan v Current potential Productive agricultural sector (eg. Punjab) v Large textile industry huge cotton crop v Export of surgical implements legacy of sword-making center v v Future potential Burdened by high level of defense spending v Powerful landlord class with no benefit for economy v Failure to develop IT industry (cf. India) v

Sri Lanka and the Maldives v Sri Lanka v Specialization in textiles and tea

Sri Lanka and the Maldives v Sri Lanka v Specialization in textiles and tea v Perennial civil war overshadows potentials such as strategic location, and high levels of education v Maldives v Revenues from fishing and international tourism

Economic division in India Lesser developed areas Green Revolution Merchants Remittance India’s economic pacesetter

Economic division in India Lesser developed areas Green Revolution Merchants Remittance India’s economic pacesetter High-tech sector Centers of economic growth Subsistence economy Social conservatism Political corruption Socialist economic policy

Major industrial areas

Major industrial areas

Economic policy after independence v Mixed socialist-capitalist system by the 1980 s v Economic

Economic policy after independence v Mixed socialist-capitalist system by the 1980 s v Economic nationalism v Self-sufficiency policy v Liberalization v Privatization of economy since the early 1990 s of state-owned industries v Deregulation v Internationalization

Global linkages

Global linkages

v High levels of social welfare in the south v v Sri Lanka, Maldives,

v High levels of social welfare in the south v v Sri Lanka, Maldives, southwestern India Low levels of social welfare in the north v Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, northern India

The status of women v Women has a very low social position in both

The status of women v Women has a very low social position in both the Hindu and Muslim traditions v Women in the Hindu tradition v v Excluded from inheriting land, early marriage, dowry, not allowed to remarry Women has a high social position in southern India and Sri Lanka v Inheritance through the female line in Kerala