SOUTH AFRICA APARTHEID CHANGE By Joseph Naumann GENERAL

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SOUTH AFRICA APARTHEID & CHANGE By Joseph Naumann GENERAL SUBSAHARAN CHALLENGES Tribalism Lack of

SOUTH AFRICA APARTHEID & CHANGE By Joseph Naumann GENERAL SUBSAHARAN CHALLENGES Tribalism Lack of infrastructure Lack of capital Unstable government One-product economies Illiteracy Unrealistic boundaries Etc. 1

SOUTHERN AFRICA • 10 countries: Northern and Southern Tiers • 6 landlocked states •

SOUTHERN AFRICA • 10 countries: Northern and Southern Tiers • 6 landlocked states • Northern zone marks limit of Congo basin • Plateau country • Rich in natural resources • Agricultural diversity 2

South Africa n n n Physiographic delineation – the area south of the Congo

South Africa n n n Physiographic delineation – the area south of the Congo Basin Richest region in natural resources Two pivotal river systems n n The Zambezi The Orange-Vaal 3

General Information n Physiography & Climate n n n Plateaus and “mountains” The Great

General Information n Physiography & Climate n n n Plateaus and “mountains” The Great Escarpment Does not have the volcanic activity that is present in East Africa Cooler climate due to altitude and latitude – fourseason climates found in the southern part Most severe racial problems developed here 4

The Northern Tier problems abound Portugal’s poor approach to colonialism and toward eventual independence

The Northern Tier problems abound Portugal’s poor approach to colonialism and toward eventual independence n Angola n n n Rich in minerals and agricultural potential – Oil-rich Cabinda Independence brought civil war and a devastated economy – ½ country has been under rebel rule Zambia n n Landlocked position adds to the cost of exporting its minerals – decline in prices has hurt economy 1991 first multi-party democratic election in a long time brought a victory for democratic forces, but was short-lived as the country slid back toward dictatorship 5

More Northern Tier n Malawi – Landlocked country n n Almost completely agricultural economy

More Northern Tier n Malawi – Landlocked country n n Almost completely agricultural economy 1970. Dr. Hastings Banda made president for life n n n 1993 referendum favored a multi-party system 1994 Band ousted & charged with murder of opponents Moçambique – Took a Marxist route n n n Economy collapsed under bad management Rebel movement was supported by South Africa Late 1990 s some stability achieved n Government abandoned Marxist principles 6

Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) n n n Landlocked & mineral rich – Core area defined

Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia) n n n Landlocked & mineral rich – Core area defined by the mineral-rich Great Dyke and its environs Whites originally encouraged to stay as citizens 1980 s drought caused subsistence farmers to desert their land 1998 Mugabe government announced program to take land from whites and distribute it to African farmers – Economic decline problems from political mismanagement and corruption 7

Namibia n n Former German colony which was made a Mandate territory to be

Namibia n n Former German colony which was made a Mandate territory to be administered by the Republic of South Africa used it as a colony rather than preparing it for independence Achieved independence in 1990 Largely desert habitat 8

Botswana & Lesotho – landlocked n Botswana n n n Tswana dominant Bantu group

Botswana & Lesotho – landlocked n Botswana n n n Tswana dominant Bantu group – Bushmen relegated to the Kalahari Desert Economy – more productive in the north where it receives more precipitaiton Lesotho – enclave in South Africa n n Small, mountainous country – Very dependent on South Africa 1998 South African troops entered to quell a rebellion – the economy was badly damaged 9

Swaziland & Madagascar n Swaziland – Landlocked – surrounded by Mocambique and South Africa

Swaziland & Madagascar n Swaziland – Landlocked – surrounded by Mocambique and South Africa n n Agriculture – subsistence Mountainous and forested – attracts tourists King Mswati has ruled since 1986 Madagascar – unusual ecology – lemur home n n n Agricultural economy – oil deposits may help People of African & Indonesian mix – rivalry exists Destruction of the forest habitats is a problem 10

SOUTH AFRICA 11

SOUTH AFRICA 11

Historical Geography Europeans 1600 Who came first is a moot point! n Bantu 1400

Historical Geography Europeans 1600 Who came first is a moot point! n Bantu 1400 Original inhabitants, Bushmen and Hottentots, were pushed out and/or eliminated by both Bantu and Europeans who arrived relatively recently. 12

Compressed Time Line n n n n Dutch 1652 Capetown 1713, Khoikhoi displaced by

Compressed Time Line n n n n Dutch 1652 Capetown 1713, Khoikhoi displaced by Boers 1760 Dutch reach Orange River 1799 Third Kaffir War 1795 -1815 British rule in Capetown begins Wars with the Bantu 1812, 1818, 1834 British end slavery in Capetown n n n n 1836 -38 Boer Great Trek Boer conflicts with Bantu continue as they move north of Orange & Fish rivers 1860 Indian laborers 1870 Gold Rush 1880 -81 British lose first Boer War 1899 -1902 British win 2 nd Boer War 1912 ANC formed 1948 Afrikaner Government began 13

Apartheid: possibly the cruelest racial discrimination anywhere – begun after Afrikaner rule began n

Apartheid: possibly the cruelest racial discrimination anywhere – begun after Afrikaner rule began n n Theory of “separate, ” & not equal development Racial classifications system & passes n n n European – only ones who could vote Asian – Gandhi began nonviolent resistance here Coloured – Cape coloured lost right to vote Bantu – citizens of Bantustans (poorest land <20%) 90 day detention act – can be extended to 180 n n Held without charge – no writ of habeas corpus No legal representation 14

Apartheid n Anti-communism act – punishment: imprisonment n n Defined communism as, among other

Apartheid n Anti-communism act – punishment: imprisonment n n Defined communism as, among other things, criticism of the government Inconsistencies in applying the system n n Japanese made honorary Caucasians so they could stay at hotels reserved for whites Organs of black persons could be used for transplants in white people. 15

Passbooks n All aspects of life were affected by the passbook n n Where

Passbooks n All aspects of life were affected by the passbook n n Where one lived What kinds of jobs one could have Where one could go With whom one could associate 16

Quality of Bantu Life n n Bantu protest – reaction – riot (above) Housing

Quality of Bantu Life n n Bantu protest – reaction – riot (above) Housing in a Bantustan (left) 17

Separate but not equal 18

Separate but not equal 18

SOUTH AFRICA: Perforated State 19

SOUTH AFRICA: Perforated State 19

Nelson Mandela – Man of the Century Candidate? n n Young lawyer – leader

Nelson Mandela – Man of the Century Candidate? n n Young lawyer – leader in the ANC Spent 27 years in prison – contracted illness n n n Denied rights Separated from family Released from prison & negotiated with Prime Minister F. W. de Klerk to end Apartheid Elected first President Worked to create a homeland for all people regardless of their race or ethnic group. 20

South Africa’s Challenge n n Overcome great economic & educational gap Make democracy work

South Africa’s Challenge n n Overcome great economic & educational gap Make democracy work for all groups (10+ years since the end of Apartheid it’s still working) n n Achieve majority rule while protecting minority rights Curb violence Develop nationalism in place of tribalism Attract foreign capital to renew economic development 21

South Africa’s Assets n n n Rich in mineral resources Mid-latitude climates – agricultural

South Africa’s Assets n n n Rich in mineral resources Mid-latitude climates – agricultural possibilities Highest literacy rate in Africa Best infrastructure in Africa Outstanding leaders n n n Nelson Mandela (1 st & former president) Archbishop Desmond Tutu – Nobel Peace Prize Winner International sanctions have been lifted 22