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Source: http: //www. worldsecuritynetwork. com Source: http: //www. hp. com International Migration Source: http:

Source: http: //www. worldsecuritynetwork. com Source: http: //www. hp. com International Migration Source: http: //www. jacekphot. com Source: http: //www. maricopaworkforceconnection. com

International Migration “Permanent or semi permanent change of residence, across national borders, by an

International Migration “Permanent or semi permanent change of residence, across national borders, by an individual or group of people”. Happening everywhere and for a variety of reasons: - War/politics - Food/water - Jobs - Environmental concerns - Quality of life Can be voluntary or involuntary. Two case studies: Singapore and Tuvalu.

Singapore: a Global City Location of a disproportionate concentration of corporate HQ’s, international financial

Singapore: a Global City Location of a disproportionate concentration of corporate HQ’s, international financial services, advanced producer services, advanced telecommunication facilities and other supporting social and physical infrastructure. Attracts transnational flows of people – people from multiple nations – converging on city because it is a place of money and culture. Does not seem to belong to just one people of one nation but fragments of people and cultures hailing from different parts of globe. National borders are becoming more porous. Over time, transnational communities comprising large groups of specific nationalities may establish themselves as a visible presence in landscape of global city.

Singapore Aims to be a cosmopolis in next millennium, a city that is economically

Singapore Aims to be a cosmopolis in next millennium, a city that is economically dynamic, socially cohesive and culturally vibrant. A city hub where people will enjoy a high standard of living as well as a cultured and sophisticated lifestyle enriched through the arts. For these globalising visions to materialise, transnational flows of people are a necessary accompaniment.

Categories of Transnational Flows of People 1. Transnational Business and Professional Elites – high

Categories of Transnational Flows of People 1. Transnational Business and Professional Elites – high waged, high skilled employees usually associated with finance, banking and business services. - Referred to as ‘foreign talent’. - Much sought after by cities with globalising ambitions to create an ‘oasis of talent’ and to give city a competitive edge. - Competition foreign talent amongst globalising cities is very stiff: expatriate workers are highly mobile, often circulating from city to city. 2. Low waged Unskilled Migrant Workers – ‘Third World Populations’ who enter global city as contract migrant workers, occupying insecure niches in unskilled or semi skilled sectors of urban service economy. - Mainly manual and construction workers (all male, mainly from Bangladesh, Thailand the PRC), numbering about 500, 000, while another 140, 000 are foreign domestic workers (all female, mainly from Philippines, Indonesia and Sri Lanka). - ‘Foreign workers’ are strictly regulated to ensure that they remain a transient force. - Brought in on ‘use and discard’ principle.

Categories of Transnational Flows of People 2 3. Expressive specialists – creative individuals who

Categories of Transnational Flows of People 2 3. Expressive specialists – creative individuals who participate in the cultural scene in areas such as art, fashion, design, photography, film making, writing, music and cuisine. 4. World Tourists – attracted to the cosmopolitan ambience of global cities. In 2001, Singapore received 7. 5 million tourists. Source: http: //www. startersinformatiecentrum. nl Source: http: //www. inco. com Source: http: //www. media. rice. edu

‘Foreigners in our midst’ “If Singapore is reserved for Singaporeans alone, we would have

‘Foreigners in our midst’ “If Singapore is reserved for Singaporeans alone, we would have a very small Singapore, Singaporeans who are talented would emigrate to greener pastures. If, instead, we promote the idea of a Big Singapore, then even Singaporeans who spend many years overseas would not want to give up their citizenship. The opposite would happen. Others would clamber to join our ranks” (George Yeo, Minister for Information and the Arts)”.

The Immigration Argument Will migrants “make the pie bigger, or take away the icing?

The Immigration Argument Will migrants “make the pie bigger, or take away the icing? ”. Proponents argue that logic of importing talent is irrefutable given that Singapore’s small size will never produce enough to maintain a competitive edge in face of escalating regional and global competition. - use foreigners to erase divides between nationalities to fuel competition between places; - historically an immigrant society; - highlight experience of other immigrant nations e. g. USA. Others fear economic, social and political problems => onslaught of alien values will fray country’s social fabric; competition for space and amenities will heighten; and policies to attract such talent will result in preferential treatment of non-citizens. - expatriate workers bring competition right to doorstep. - ‘foreigners’ who become Permanent Residents enjoy all privileges of citizenship and none of the responsibilities.

Limits to cosmopolitanism in Singapore’s vision of a global city? Public discourse on foreign

Limits to cosmopolitanism in Singapore’s vision of a global city? Public discourse on foreign workers has focused on issues such as social problems of foreign workers weekend enclaves, impact of maids on Singapore family and need for quick solutions to repatriate foreign workers found abandoned in streets. In contrast to red carpet treatment given to foreign talent, state policy with regard to foreign workers is conceived to ensure that they are little more than transient workforce. Stringent legislation put into place not only to restrict numbers and ensure short term migrant status, but also to govern employment. Emergence of a Neo-colonial attitude: - Foreign maids banned from dining in social clubs and swimming in condominium pools. - Given no day off contracts, confinement to employers home and exclusion from public space signals lack of foothold on terrain of civil society.

Cosmopolitan Singaporeans Generally prefer speaking in English but who are also bilingual, tend to

Cosmopolitan Singaporeans Generally prefer speaking in English but who are also bilingual, tend to work in sectors such as banking, I. T. , engineering, science and technology and who are comfortable anywhere in the world – have an international outlook. Government is encouraging Singaporeans to ‘go regional’ or ‘go global’ in order to fuel Singapore economy’s ‘second wing’. An attempt to foster growth of a Singaporean transnational elite class – people who are highly mobile and able to live and work anywhere in world but whose hearts still belong to Singapore.

Source: http: //www. ibiblio. org/hyperwar Source: http: //www. worldeagle. com

Source: http: //www. ibiblio. org/hyperwar Source: http: //www. worldeagle. com

Tuvalu • Tuvalu comprises 3 islands and six atolls totaling 26 km², and lies

Tuvalu • Tuvalu comprises 3 islands and six atolls totaling 26 km², and lies about 1000 km north of Fiji. • Highest point 5 metres above sea level, one of the world's most low-lying countries. Half population crammed on 30 hectare (75 acre) Funafuti atoll, which is only 3 metres above waves. • Faced with prospect of being swamped by rising sea levels, Pacific island nation is considering evacuating its 9, 300 residents. • With global sea levels predicted to rise by more than 80 cm over next century, Tuvaluans are living on borrowed time. Only solution, according to government, is to transport entire population overseas. • Nearly 3, 000 Tuvaluans already live overseas, and a government programme is now relocating 75 more every year. Source: http: //www. allstates-flags-com

Migration Problems Tuvalu's Polynesian people arrived in islands 2, 000 years ago by way

Migration Problems Tuvalu's Polynesian people arrived in islands 2, 000 years ago by way of Tonga, Samoa and Tokelau, but international borders mean few relocation options are available. Tuvaluan Government is lobbying Australia and New Zealand to set aside land to serve as a new home for Tuvalu's people. New Zealand has agreed to plan a 30 -year immigration program. But Australia's Immigration Minister, Philip Ruddock, said this action was based on speculation. "Why would I agree with that? " he asked. "I think it is on a 30, 40 or 50 -year horizon, if it's going to occur at all. '‘ An island of Fiji (Kioa) has been earmarked for transplantation yet its small (and intensely moralistic) community reject changing morality of the Tuvaluans.

Moving a Nation Environmental disasters have already forced c. 25 m people from their

Moving a Nation Environmental disasters have already forced c. 25 m people from their homes, but this would be the first time an entire nation was left homeless. President of Uniting Justice Australia says that Tuvaluans should be granted one of the uninhabited islands at northern end of Great Barrier Reef. "You spell an end to a culture if you split them up, but they would be happy to give up their national sovereignty as long as they're able to stay together. Australia has no shortage of land, " she said. “A mass relocation would ensure the Tuvaluan language and culture is preserved instead of being scattered to the four corners of the earth”.

Source: http: //www. map. tuvalu. tv But won’t be going without a fight. Tuvalu

Source: http: //www. map. tuvalu. tv But won’t be going without a fight. Tuvalu is considering plans to sue USA and Australia (the single-largest and largest percapita emitters, respectively, of greenhouse gases) in International Court of Justice in The Hague for their failure to ratify Kyoto Protocol. Proposed argument – that two nations’ emissions form an unfair restraint of trade, since they are in effect putting the country of Tuvalu out of business. For good measure, Tuvalu would follow up by suing large American polluters like Exxon. Mobil in U. S. courts.

Last year second-warmest on record, according to UN’s World Meteorological Organization. Changing climate is

Last year second-warmest on record, according to UN’s World Meteorological Organization. Changing climate is bringing higher tides and fiercer, more frequent storms that are eroding burial grounds and washing out crops. Within lifetime of some of today’s residents, these surges will likely turn Tuvalu into an uninhabitable collection of rocks. Islanders already drink from rainwater tanks to preserve atolls' scanty groundwater, but seepage of salt water into farmland has destroyed crops and made islanders dependent on canned imports.

Conclusion International migration is essential to functioning of globalising world. People move for a

Conclusion International migration is essential to functioning of globalising world. People move for a variety of reasons including jobs and lifestyles, and take with them skills and their culture. This ‘foreign talent’ is highly desirable and much sought after. At other end of spectrum, many people are forced from their homelands by war, poverty, famine and environmental concerns. They are greeted much less kindly and are often suppressed by laws and regulations which are designed to keep them powerless and transient.

Bibliography Teo, P. , Yeoh, B. , Giok, O. , and Lai, T. (2004)

Bibliography Teo, P. , Yeoh, B. , Giok, O. , and Lai, T. (2004) Changing Landscapes of Singapore: Strawberry Hill. Tuvalu Islands (2006). [Online]. [Accessed on 15/03/06]. Available from World Wide Web: <http: //www. tuvaluislands. com/>