- Slides: 39
Solid Waste Management
Types of solid waste • Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: – a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste, – b) Industrial waste as hazardous waste, and – c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste.
Municipal solid waste • Municipal solid waste consists of household waste, construction and debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. • Over the last few years, the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans, aluminium foils, plastics, and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment. In India, some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. • a single piece of plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban on plastics in 1998. • One positive note is that in many large cities, shops have begun packing items in reusable or biodegradable bags. Certain biodegradable items can also be composted and reused. In fact proper handling of the biodegradable waste will considerably lessen the burden of solid waste that each city has to tackle.
Garbage: the four broad categories • Organic waste: kitchen waste, vegetables, flowers, leaves, fruits. • Toxic waste: old medicines, paints, chemicals, bulbs, spray cans, fertilizer and pesticide containers, batteries, shoe polish. • Recyclable: paper, glass, metals, plastics. • Soiled ( BMW) : hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other body fluids.
There are different categories of waste generated, each take their own time to degenerate (as illustrated in the table below). The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate Type of litter Approximate time it takes to degenerate the litter Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc. a week or two. Paper 10– 30 days Cotton cloth 2– 5 months Wood 10– 15 years Woolen items 1 year Tin, aluminium, and other metal items such as cans 100– 500 years Plastic bags one million years? Glass bottles undetermined
Hazardous waste • Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things e. g. gases. India generates around 7 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year, most of which is concentrated in four states: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. • In the industrial sector, the major generators of hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper, pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods industries.
Hospital waste • Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities in these fields or in the production or testing of biologicals. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical waste, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc. This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed in a scientific and discriminate manner. • Surveys carried out by various agencies show that the health care establishments in India are not giving due attention to their waste management. After the notification of the Bio-medical Waste (Handling and Management) Rules, 1998, these establishments are slowly streamlining the process of waste segregation, collection, treatment, and disposal. Many of the larger hospitals have either installed the treatment facilities or are in the process of doing so.
Disposal solutions Landfill : Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills and open dumps can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common product of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced from anaerobic breakdown of organic waste. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation and is a greenhouse gas. • Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.
Disposal solutions Incineration • • Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (Wt. E) or energy-from-waste (Ef. W) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam or electricity. Combustion in an incinerator is not always perfect and there have been concerns about pollutants in gaseous emissions from incinerator stacks.
Disposal solutions • Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles. In some communities, the owner of the waste is required to separate the materials into different bins (e. g. for paper, plastics, metals) prior to its collection. In other communities, all recyclable materials are placed in a single bin for collection, and the sorting is handled later at a central facility. The latter method is known as "single-stream recycling. • The most common consumer products recycled include aluminium such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel from food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, rubber tyres, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes. • The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required. • The type of material accepted for recycling varies by city and country. Each city and country has different recycling programs in place that can handle the various types of recyclable materials.
Disposal solutions • Re-use • Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.
Disposal solutions • Energy recovery from waste is the conversion of non-recyclable waste materials into usable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes, including combustion, gasification, pyrolyzation, anaerobic digestion, and landfill gas recovery. This process is often called waste-to-energy. Energy recovery from waste is part of the non-hazardous waste management hierarchy. Using energy recovery to convert non-recyclable waste materials into electricity and heat, generates a renewable energy source and can reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources as well as reduce methane generation from landfills. Globally, waste-to-energy accounts for 16% of waste management. • Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. • The process usually occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other chemical products. • The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. • Gasification are used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Types of Composting • Bicomposting • Mechanical composting • Pot composting • Vermicomposting • Magic Bucket
Biocomposting The compost prepared by using Bioinoculum is mixtures of culture of microorganism, specially developed to facilitate aerobic composting of organic waste. It contains cultures of bacteria, fungi & actinomycetae along with enzymes which facilitate conversion of organic waste in to a bio stabilized compost. This compost is free from any toxic or hazardous material.
CASE STUDIES: • They have done it 1. Prakruti a Housing Society in Mittal Park Thane (W) started to compost their wet waste of the society using biocomposting process in 2000. 2. The society has 56 flats and generates approx 30 -35 kg of wet waste and garden waste on a daily basis. Two big cement pits of the dimension of 7 ft. X 6 ft. X 5 ft were made in which alternatively waste is filled. 3. Biocluture was sprayed on the same. With regular watering and turning the waste, a fine biocompost was harvested once in a year. 4. One sweeper who collects the waste from households has been trained to do the activity. 5. The entire project was facilitated by Enviro-vigil from its inception.
Prakruti a Housing Society, having BIOCOMPOST PLANT
Mechanical composting • The Mechanical Process : Segregation Method using Trummels Vibratory Sieve, bucket elevator, Aspirator, Destoner, Cyclone separator, Enriching Mechanism & Packing. Production capacity is around 20 MT to 500 MT/day. The various OWC models and their organic waste processing capacities: OWC 30: upto 200 kgs/ Day OWC 60: from 200 â€“ 400 kgs/Day OWC 130: from 400 â€“ 800 kgs/Day OWC 300: from 800 â€“ 2500 kgs/Day OWC 500: from 2500 â€“ 4500 kgs/Day PROCESS The Organic Waste is converted into homogenized odour free output with in 15 minutes through Bio Mechanical Process and is converted into COMPOST with in two weeks which can be used in kitchen gardens and landscape applications.
TTCWMA: - Mechanical composting photos
CASE STUDIES: • They have done it 1. Trans Thane creek waste management association started to compost their wet waste of the industries using mechanical composting process in 2012 -13. 2. The company generates and collected approx 3000 -3500 kg of wet waste and vegetable waste ( APMC Market ) on a daily basis. One big shreeder and Organic waste converter machine used for shredding of waste and then it is placed in create. During the shredding bioculum powder added in the wet waste. 3. With regular watering ( already filled in stand) and turning the waste, a fine biocompost was harvested after 15 days. 4. One sweeper who collects the waste from households has been trained to do the activity. And 2 two worker operated the whole unit. One driver placed for transportation. . 5. The entire project was facilitated by Enviro-vigil from its inception.
Pot Composting • This is a very versatile process of composting. In these method terracotta pot / earthen pot used for making compost. Green waste, sawdust, dried leaves, placed in to the pot and converted in to manure. It can also be used to compost organic waste and dried leaves.
Composting The Daily Dump Way • As our little balconies become green, we need to sustain them with compost and other care. We are also committing ourselves to up recycling the waste generated by our busy Kitchen. • What you see in the picture above is called a Khamba, ot pot composting. • It is made by Daily Dump organization. This composting unit used for household wet waste management for flat or bungalow. • It consists of 3 large Terracotta pots/ earthen pot of about 15 liters capacity each. The pot that sits on the floor is the one with a bottom. The other 2 pots are bottomless. They just have a rope grid in the bottom. The middle and top pots are used for dumping the daily waste from the kitchen.
Vermicomposting • Vermicompost is the excreta of earthworms, which is rich in humus and nutrients. We can rear earthworms artificially in a brick tank or near the stem / trunk of trees (specially horticultural trees). By feeding these earthworms with biomass and watching properly the food (bio-mass) of earthworms, we can produce the required quantities of vermicompost.
Earthworm Spp: • 1. Eisenia foetida, (Red Wigglers). • 2. Eisenia hortensis (European nightcrawlers) • 3. Lumbricus rubellus (red earthworm).
PROCEDURE: • There are two main procedure of vermicomposting. One of is pit / bin method & another is raised bed or flow-through system. 1. Make a open bed / pit of 10 ft in length X 3 ft width X 3 ft height. 2. fill the pit / bed with organic waste like litter, animal dung, kitchen garbage etc, 3. Leave around 150 worms/ 1 kg vermiculture in that pit/bed. 4. Cover the pit / bed with the gunny bags / dry leaves. 5. Sprinkled 50 lit to 70 lit water daily on the material fill in the bed/ pit. 6. Maintain the moisture up to 60 to 80%. 7. Maintain the temperature about 25 to 30 °C of the pit / bed. 7. shuffle/ turn the material after the period of 10 days, 11. After 45 to 60 days stop watering. 12. Take out the compost from pit / bed, separates worms. 13. Then dry it & sieve it. 14. Again fill the pit for composting & put all worms in to the pit. 15. if there is problem of temp. / sun, snow, rain the cover the pit with the shade. 16. It is necessary to monitor the temperatures, moisture level & PH of the pit / bin.
CASE STUDIES: • They have done it: Ø NRB Bearings Ltd a company in Pokhran II Thane (W) started a vermicomposting project in their campus for the garden waste of their company. Ø Complete consultancy was provided by Enviro-Vigil. Ø The project was initiated in the month of April 2012. Ø 4 of their gardeners were trained to carry out the activity. Ø Approx 1. 5 ton of garden waste was composted by this process. Ø In a period of 2 mnths, 1200 kg of compost was harvested, which has eliminated their purchase of compost from external sources and saved them of a lot of recurring expenses.
Vermicomposting at NRB company Campus
Segregation of the waste • • • DRY WASTE Plastic Thermocol Paper Cloth Styrofoam Cardboard Mosquito mat Biscuit and chocolate wrappers • • • WET WASTE Dry leaves Tea leaves Fruit and vegetable peels Flower waste (nirmalya) Cooked food waste Non veg leftovers Egg shells Coconut shells
Procedure of the Magic Bucket PROCEDURE: • A 17. 5 "dia( 25 lit. ) is used for composting in which five holes ( 2 cm dia) at base & lid are made. • Nets are fixed on the holes of the lid with help of fevistick, to prevent insects from entering the bucket. • Layering from the base to the top. The 1 st layer is made up by placing broken bricks (1"). On that a 2 nd layer of sugarcane waste (3"). Then 3 rd layer (1") of cow dung. In 4 th layer add half part of Biocompost/ Aaushadhi Mati is layered on the cowdung layer. This is followed by a layer (1") of dry leaf. Ans once again a layer of cow dung (1"). • Remaining biocompost / Aaushadhi Mati is layered on it. • A final layer of chopped green leaf/ green vegetables waste is layered on it. • Then water is sprinkled on last layer. • After 4 to 6 days the chopped green leaves/ vegetable waste turns blackish in colour which means the bacteria have multiplied to a substantial amount and the bucket is now activated and ready for use • To such an activated bucket fresh organic waste of the kitchen can be added on a daily basis. • In case of foul smell a layer of soil is to be added to the waste. • Sprinkle water regularly. • The top layers can be harvested on a regular basis and new waste can be added. • Such soil called as Aaushadhi Mati which contains good nutrients & bacteria.
Magic bucket layering
Do’s and Don’ts • Dos • Always keep the bucket in a shady but open area • Always keep the bucket well aerated • Water the bucket regularly • Turn the contents well once in a week or so • Always chop the waste into small pieces before adding to the bucket • Don’ts • Do not add spicy and oily cooked food waste in the bucket • Don’t add non veg, egg shells and coconut shells in the bucket • Don’t over water the bucket or allow it flood in the rains
Keep in mind the following basic ideas while managing the waste in your Daily Dump products: Air Water Food
Benefits • Waste is not something that should be discarded or disposed of with no regard for future use. It can be a valuable resource if addressed correctly, through policy and practice. With rational and consistent waste management practices there is an opportunity to reap a range of benefits. Those benefits include: • Economic - Improving economic efficiency through the means of resource use, treatment and disposal and creating markets for recycles can lead to efficient practices in the production and consumption of products and materials resulting in valuable materials being recovered for reuse and the potential for new jobs and new business opportunities. • Social - By reducing adverse impacts on health by proper waste management practices, the resulting consequences are more appealing settlements. Better social advantages can lead to new sources of employment and potentially lifting communities out of poverty especially in some of the developing poorer countries and cities. • Environmental - Reducing or eliminating adverse impacts on the environmental through reducing, reusing and recycling, and minimizing resource extraction can provide improved air and water quality and help in the reduction of greenhouse emissions. • Inter-generational Equity - Following effective waste management practices can provide subsequent generations a more robust economy, a fairer and more inclusive society and a cleaner environment