- Slides: 15
Solid Waste Management Introduction
Introduction § Solid waste management, which includes the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of wastes, is a crucial element of city’s infrastructure. § Although the collection of solid wastes is always a local service problem and the disposal issue is generally regional in nature, the broad policy issues must be dealt with on the federal level.
Types of Waste § Solid waste can be generally classified in the following categories: § Garbage consists of wastes generated by the preparation, cooking and serving of food, as well as from the handling, storing etc. § The combustible fraction of rubbish consists of items such as paper, cartons, boxes, furniture etc. The non combustible fraction consists of metal objects, tin, glass, crockery and like items.
Types of Waste § Ashes are the residues from the fires used for heating. § Street refuse includes sweeping, dirt, leaves. Other items found in streets and on sidewalks. § Building waste includes material left over from construction, as well as items generated from the demolition of buildings or the repair of roads or other infrastructure.
Types of Waste § Industrial waste includes a broad variety of substances including hazardous material, hospital waste or radioactive materials from power plants § Although the composition of waste from specific site will vary according to the land-use, a breakdown for a heavily urbanized area would be as follows: Household 48% Commercial 31% Construction 5% Others 16%
Community Solid Waste Generation Building Use Waste Production Residential 4 lb. /person/day College 4 lb. /100 sq. ft. / day Community Facility 1 lb. /100 sq. ft. / day Health Facility 2 lb. /100 sq. ft. / day Office 1 lb. /100 sq. ft. / day Theatre 0. 25 lb. /person Retail 10 lb. /100 sq. ft. / day Source: Flack and Kurtz Consulting Engineers (1974)
Planning Considerations § One of the critical consideration of planning for effective solid waste management is the composition of waste. The quantities of plastic being discarded is so large that their disposal creates serious problems. In landfills, these substances which are not biodegradable inhibit the decomposition of organic wastes. § Combustion of plastic substances creates noxious fumes which must be scrubbed out of the effluent before being discharged to the atmosphere.
Planning Considerations § One solution would be prohibition of the use of plastic material, this may seem impossible, but it is practiced in many cities including New York. § When designing a residential subdivision it is important to plan for waste collection, which can be done from the backyard or the front yard; the location of service and access roads is determined by such decisions, as is the cost of collection.
Planning Considerations § Road pattern for each new area must be planned to accommodate the collection vehicles. § Road width have to permit the passage of a car while waste collection is going on; however excess widths encourage on street parking, which in turn makes waste collection more difficult. § Climate affects the frequency of collection : Whereas once or twice weekly may be acceptable in northern climate areas, but a minimum of three times per week will be required in warm climates to prevent odors.
Planning Considerations § The location of landfills is a major planning problem. Land fills require large open areas, preferably shielded from view; they must be far enough from inhabited areas to make their presence acceptable, yet they must be close enough to avoid lengthy round trips for the collection vehicles and roads leading to them must have the capacity to accept the intensive traffic.
Steps to develop a SWMP 1. Develop a profile of the planning area § § Include information on population, number of households, types of business, and estimated growth rate of the area. Identifying transportation routes, distance to solid waste landfills and other disposal sites, and infrastructure needs. This information will help when developing cost estimates for waste management activities. 2. Define the solid waste generators within the planning area § Examine all of the residential, commercial, and municipal solid waste generators in the planning area (include homes, tribal governmental buildings, schools, restaurants, educational institutes, health facilities, etc. ).
Steps to develop a SWMP 3. Identify existing waste management practices within the planning area § Determine where waste is currently going and how it is being disposed of. Identify any significant amounts of waste entering and leaving the planning area. 4. Conduct a waste assessment/waste audit § Characterizing solid waste that requires management in the community is the backbone of the whole planning process. Determining the quantity and composition of waste will allow evaluation of options and estimation of costs.
Steps to develop a SWMP 5. Estimate future waste generation quantities § Estimate using the projected growth information that was gathered in Step 1. 6. Develop waste handling options § Once a picture of the current situation is determined, begin looking at the waste management options available. What percentage of discards could be prevented, reused, reduced, or recycled. 7. Identify existing regional programs or infrastructures § Determine if there are potential benefits of developing or participating in regional programs. Planners and managers usually find that it is beneficial to participate in regional solid waste advisory committees or workgroups to gain an understanding of how others are dealing with their challenges.
Steps to develop a SWMP 8. Develop costs for waste handling options § Cost estimates should include both capital costs and operation and maintenance costs for each option. 9. Compare options based on criteria defined by the area § Look to your goals to assist in the development of criteria for comparing options and to prioritize criteria. 10. Obtain approval by the local Council or other appropriate governing body.
Conclusion § Solid and hazardous waste infrastructure does not suffer so much from disrepair as in the case of water mains or highways, however there is clearly a shortage of capacity for dealing with the waste streams. § Technology is not being applied as effectively as it could be and governmental enforcement is constrained by the lack of adequate funding.