- Slides: 25
SOL: USII. 4 c & 9 a DISCRIMINATION Discrimination and segregation against African Americans intensified and took new forms in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries.
Jim Crow Laws Limited the freedom of Blacks Ø Lynchings against Blacks were common in the South. Ø Blacks unsuccessfully looked to the U. S. Court System to safeguard their rights.
Separate but Equal? 1896 • Plessy vs. Ferguson-upheld a segregated southern society. The Supreme Court confirmed legality of "separate but equal" in Plessey vs. Ferguson case - 1896. Not a violation Of the 14 th Amendment Equal Protection.
RESPONSE TO RACISM Ida B. Wells-led a crusade to get the government to stop lynching and punish southern whites.
BOOKER T. WASHINGTON Attended Hampton Institute 1 st President Tuskegee Institute • Former slave, believed that equality could be gained through vocational education and economic success. • He accepted social segregation. • Wrote Up From Slavery • Some blacks thought he was too cautious and faulted him for his acceptance of separation.
Du Bois would not accept segregation as Booker T. Washington had. W. E. B. Du Bois • Believed that education was meaningless without equality. • He supported political equality for African Americans by helping form the NAACP. • Wrote: The Souls of Black Folk.
The Student will demonstrate how the U. S. A. grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through th the early 20 Century. Sol-VUS. 8 d.
Working Conditions in the Factories • Dangerous • Child Labor • Long hours, low wages • No benefits • Women labor
How did workers respond to unfair treatment by management. • Formed Labor Unions -1886 -AFL-Samuel Gompers -American Railway Union-Eugene Debs -Industrial Ladies Garment Union • Unions Organized -Strikes, slowdowns, sit downs, and boycotts
How did Owners Respond? • Placed union members on blacklists • Violent confrontations • Yellow dog Contracts • Lockouts
Famous Strikes Ø In the late 1800's, strikes occurred all the time, often ending in violence and little gain for the workers. ØHaymarket Strike ØPullman Strike
Homestead Strike Ø In 1892, 13 men were killed in a battle between striking steelworkers and strikebreakers at Carnegie's Homestead steel plant in Pittsburgh. Ø The strike turned many Americans against unions and organized labor, which they blamed for the violence.
Corrupt Politicians • Bosses and the political machines controlled the big cities. • Political machines gained power by attending to the needs of new immigrants ( jobs, housing) • Some city bosses tried to help new immigrants in order to get their votes.
Boss Tweed-Political Machines • One of the most famous of these bosses was Boss Tweed of Tammany Hall • Often fixed elections to keep his political machine in power.
The Progressive Movement • • Progressive Used government to REFORM Movementproblems created by industrialization a movement to have the government and social inequality. reform problems created by industrialization
Goals of the Progressive Movement • Government controlled by the people • Guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation • Elimination of social injustices – racism, discrimination, poor work conditions
The Government Steps In • Teddy Roosevelt became the first president to seriously attach trusts. • Sherman Anti-Trust Act-Prevents monopolies • Clayton Anti-Trust Act • 1935 The Wagner Act- created the NLRB to monitor union & employee relations • 1947 Taft-Hartley Act-The President can delay a strike if it threatens national security.
A Trust Busting President § Teddy Roosevelt promised a “SQUARE DEAL. ” Square Deal § Equal treatment by Roosevelt’s belief in a society based on fair ending monopolies business competition, & trust. and increased welfare § He earned the for the needy nickname the Trust Buster. 26 th President
Teddy Roosevelt Ø He worked hard to regulate business and helped establish workers rights Ø Meat Inspection Act- Government was now allowed to inspect meat shipped interstate Ø Pure Food and Drug Act- Led to the (FDA) and allowed for regulating food and drugs Ø Elkins Act- ICC could punish the RR’s that gave rebates to trusts
The Muckrakers • Crusading Journalists who sought to expose the abuse of power by crooked politicians & the robber barons.
Upton Sinclair- The Jungle • Describes just how terrible conditions for workers were a hundred years ago. • The threat of food contamination from unsanitary factories before corporate greed was put in check by government regulation.
JACOB RIIS: REFORMER • In the 1880 s his work gravitated towards reform and he worked with other New York reformers then crusading for better living conditions for the thousands of immigrants flocking to New York in search of new opportunities.
How did the reforms of the Progressive Movement change the United States? • Progressive Movement reforms: Ø Improved safety conditions Ø Reduced work hours Ø Placed restrictions on child labor Ø Fresh water was piped in, lighting was installed. Ø Garbage collections and street cleaning
More Reforms • Elections – Progressives were able to reform the electoral process • this took some of the corruption out of elections Ø 17 th amendment- direct election of senators; before state legislators had chosen senators ØSecret Ballot- voting process reformed
Voter Choice Reforms • Established the Initiative, Referendum, and Recall at the state level. Ø Initiative the citizens can propose laws. Ø Referendum the citizens can actually vote on the passage of laws. Ø Recall citizens can remove state officials