Soil and Water Soil an abiotic factor Soil

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Soil and Water

Soil and Water

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile /

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile / Horizons 2. Composition 3. Texture 4. Particle 5. size Permeability 6. p. H level

1. Soil Profile / Horizons

1. Soil Profile / Horizons

1. Soil Profile / Horizons – layers of soil. Litter – loose layer of

1. Soil Profile / Horizons – layers of soil. Litter – loose layer of plant remains Horizon A - Topsoil (humus, clay, minerals) most animals live here. Nutrient rich Horizon B- Subsoil – little humus Horizon C - Parent material Bedrock

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile /

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile / Horizons 2. Composition 3. Texture 4. Particle 5. size Permeability 6. p. H level

2. Soil Composition A mixture of : • Rock particles • Minerals • Decayed

2. Soil Composition A mixture of : • Rock particles • Minerals • Decayed organic material (humus) • Air • water

2. Soil Composition - continued - Sand, silt, and clay come from weathered bedrock.

2. Soil Composition - continued - Sand, silt, and clay come from weathered bedrock. ***The combination of this affects the type of plants that can grow and what animals can live in it. *** http: //school. discovery. com/schooladv entures/soil/recipe_soil. html

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile /

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile / Horizons 2. Composition 3. Texture 4. Particle 5. size Permeability 6. p. H level

3. Soil Texture - Depends on size and proportions of soil particles in soil.

3. Soil Texture - Depends on size and proportions of soil particles in soil. 4. Particle Size – Particle size range from coarse sand to fine sand to silt and the smallest particle called clay. Particles larger than 2 mm are called gravel.

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile /

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile / Horizons 2. Composition 3. Texture 4. Particle 5. size Permeability 6. p. H level

5. Soil Permeability – Open spaces in soil that allows water drainage. The closer

5. Soil Permeability – Open spaces in soil that allows water drainage. The closer packed the less permeable.

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile /

Soil – an abiotic factor Soil quality is based on: 1. Soil profile / Horizons 2. Composition 3. Texture 4. Particle 5. size Permeability 6. p. H level

6. p. H level – Soils range from basic to acidic. Most plants grow

6. p. H level – Soils range from basic to acidic. Most plants grow with p. H between 5 and 7. (Lime – an alkaline fertilizer Soil p. H that can be added to make soil more basic). 0 to 6 Acid 7 Neutral 8 to 14 Base / Alkaline

Soil

Soil

Everything in an ecosystem depends directly or indirectly on the soil……. . Soil quality

Everything in an ecosystem depends directly or indirectly on the soil……. . Soil quality maintains the ecosystem. If it changes the life forms. LOAM – Perfect soil with just the right amt. of clay, sand, silt, and humus.

Intermission 1. A mixture of rock particles, minerals, and decayed organic material, air, and

Intermission 1. A mixture of rock particles, minerals, and decayed organic material, air, and water. _____ 2. Most plants grow with p. H between ______. 3. Most animals live in this layer of soil. 4. _____ maintains the ecosystem and affects the life forms.

Intermission 7. The size of soil particles affect the soil _____. 8. The layers

Intermission 7. The size of soil particles affect the soil _____. 8. The layers of soil. _____ 9. Decayed organic material in the soil. _______ 10. The smallest particle of soil. _____

Erosion Soil Deposition

Erosion Soil Deposition

Definitions to Know Sediment – Material moved by erosion. Landslides – Rock and soil

Definitions to Know Sediment – Material moved by erosion. Landslides – Rock and soil slide quickly down a steep slope. Erosion – The process natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another. Deposition – Where erosion “deposits” or lays down sediment some where else.

Erosion and Deposition Facts 1. Deposition Changes shape of land 2. Deposition occurs where

Erosion and Deposition Facts 1. Deposition Changes shape of land 2. Deposition occurs where agents of erosion, such as wind and rain, lay down sediment. Flood Plain – The flat wide 3. Weathering, deposition work area of landerosion, along a river. to build up and wear down the Groundwater – Underground Earth’s surface water that helps to shape the 4. Heavy rains cause erosion land. 5. Road builders cutting highways through hills or mountains is a main cause of landslides.

6. The amount of water can add to a mudflow 7. Runoffs carry soil

6. The amount of water can add to a mudflow 7. Runoffs carry soil with them and cause erosion 8. Affects the Plain amount runoff Flood – Theofflat wide in an area: 1. Amt. area of rain, of land along a river. 2. Amt. of vegetation, Groundwater – Underground 3. Typewater of soil, that helps to shape the 4. Shape and slope of the land, land. 5. How people have used and developed the land

Gravity causes mass movement such as landslides, mudslides, slump and creep.

Gravity causes mass movement such as landslides, mudslides, slump and creep.

The Dust Bowl • Weathering and erosion led to the devastation of the mid-west.

The Dust Bowl • Weathering and erosion led to the devastation of the mid-west. • The sediment of good soil was moved to other areas and the farmland was barren. (Deposition) il pra o t ed n!! e n We ervatio s con so e c i t c

Deltas are formed by deposition.

Deltas are formed by deposition.

Weathering and Erosion • Moving w ater has shaped most of the Earth’s land.

Weathering and Erosion • Moving w ater has shaped most of the Earth’s land.

Water – an Abiotic Factor

Water – an Abiotic Factor

 • 1. Floodplain • 2. Delta • 3. Drainage Basin (Watershed)

• 1. Floodplain • 2. Delta • 3. Drainage Basin (Watershed)

Flood Plain • A flat area of land along a river. – Advantage –

Flood Plain • A flat area of land along a river. – Advantage – when it floods and recedes it leave fertile land. – Disadvantage – risk of major damage from flooding.

Delta • form where river ends into still body of water.

Delta • form where river ends into still body of water.

Drainage Basin / Watershed • Watershed - The land where water runs off into

Drainage Basin / Watershed • Watershed - The land where water runs off into nearby waters such as streams, rivers, & lakes.

Terms to Know Tributary – a stream that flows into a larger stream. Ground.

Terms to Know Tributary – a stream that flows into a larger stream. Ground. Water – Underground water Runoff – Water moving over land carrying particles and can lead to erosion. Divide– The high ground between 2 drainage basins.

Zone of Aeration – water enters this unsaturated area. Zone of Saturation – Also

Zone of Aeration – water enters this unsaturated area. Zone of Saturation – Also known as groundwater, area where water has filled up the soil Water Table – Point at which groundwater is flowing through underground rocks. Permeable – soil and rock that allow the water to pass through

Aquifer – Underground rock with groundwater.

Aquifer – Underground rock with groundwater.

Divide, Floodplain, Watershed, and Groundwater

Divide, Floodplain, Watershed, and Groundwater

Locate : runoffs, tributaries , divide, and groundwater.

Locate : runoffs, tributaries , divide, and groundwater.

Water is important because… • drinking, agriculture, animal habitats, and industry. • hydroelectric power

Water is important because… • drinking, agriculture, animal habitats, and industry. • hydroelectric power • Recreation • Sources of food and minerals (71% of earth is water and only 3% is usable)

Hartwell Dam – built for hydroelectric power.

Hartwell Dam – built for hydroelectric power.

A Watershed http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=LJ 63 x. GJ Y 4 p. M

A Watershed http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=LJ 63 x. GJ Y 4 p. M

What is Runoff?

What is Runoff?

What is Groundwater?

What is Groundwater?