Sociology 125 Lectures 18 19 Gender November 6

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Sociology 125 Lectures 18 & 19 Gender November 6 & 8, 2012

Sociology 125 Lectures 18 & 19 Gender November 6 & 8, 2012

I. GENDER & NATURE

I. GENDER & NATURE

1. Definitions of Sex & Gender Sex = a biological distinction based on roles

1. Definitions of Sex & Gender Sex = a biological distinction based on roles in the process of biological reproduction Gender = a social distinction between roles and expectations linked to sex. • Gender is the social transformation of a biological difference – sex – into a social difference. • Gender norms are the rules of appropriate behavior and roles for men and women.

2. What is Natural? I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong

2. What is Natural? I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms Gender gap in caregiving Men Low Women High The intensity of caregiving behavior

2. What is Natural? I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong

2. What is Natural? I. Existing distribution of caregiving in a world with strong gender norms II. Hypothetical distributions of caregiving in a world with weak gender norms Gender gap in caregiving Men Low Men Women High The intensity of caregiving behavior Low Women High The intensity of caregiving behavior

II. THE EMPIRICAL STORY: MASSIVE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THREE GENERATIONS

II. THE EMPIRICAL STORY: MASSIVE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THREE GENERATIONS

Seven important elements of transformations of gender relations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Seven important elements of transformations of gender relations 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Legal Rights Labor force participation Occupational Structure & Income Power Family structure Domestic division of labor Sexuality

1. Legal Rights

1. Legal Rights

Legal Rights gained by women in 20 th Century • • Right to vote

Legal Rights gained by women in 20 th Century • • Right to vote (1920) Right to own passport (early 1930 s) Equal right to divorce (gradually since 1940 s) Reproductive rights (1973, but eroding) Equal rights to university admission (1960 s) Equal rights to all jobs (1960 s) Equal rights to participate in sports (1972)

2. Labor Force Participation

2. Labor Force Participation

2. Labor Force Participation Rates of Married Women with Children, 1950 -2007

2. Labor Force Participation Rates of Married Women with Children, 1950 -2007

3. Occupational Structure & Income

3. Occupational Structure & Income

% of People in Selected Traditionally Male Professions who are Women, 1930, 1960, 1990,

% of People in Selected Traditionally Male Professions who are Women, 1930, 1960, 1990, 2007 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Architects 1930 Lawyers & judges 1960 Physicians & surgeons 1990 2000 Policemen & detectives 2007

% Enrollments in Medical & Law Schools who are women, 1949 -2007 60% 50%

% Enrollments in Medical & Law Schools who are women, 1949 -2007 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1949 -'50 1959 -'60 1969 -1970 1979 -'80 Medical School 1989 -'90 Law School 1999 -'00 2006 -'07

% of Women in Selected Highly Gender-Segregated Jobs secretary RN Dental Assistant Carpenter Airline

% of Women in Selected Highly Gender-Segregated Jobs secretary RN Dental Assistant Carpenter Airline pilot auto mechanic 1970 2007 98. 1% 97. 8% 98. 6% 1. 6% 96. 1% 91. 2% 97. 1% 1. 9% 4. 9% 1. 7%

Men’s and Women’s median wages, 1973 -2004 Women’s wages = 63% of men’s wages

Men’s and Women’s median wages, 1973 -2004 Women’s wages = 63% of men’s wages Women’s wages = 82% of men’s wages

4. Power

4. Power

% of Large Corporations with at least one woman on board of directors 1969

% of Large Corporations with at least one woman on board of directors 1969 1981 1988 1999

% of corporate officers and CEOs who are women

% of corporate officers and CEOs who are women

Women elected officials, 1979 -2009

Women elected officials, 1979 -2009

Women in national legislatures, 2009 (%) 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15%

Women in national legislatures, 2009 (%) 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% n Ja pa re a Ko SA U ce Fr an K U Ita ly an ad a C y G er m an n Sp ai Sw ed e n 0%

5. Family Structure

5. Family Structure

% of Households that consist of a Married Couple 90% 80% 76. 0% 78.

% of Households that consist of a Married Couple 90% 80% 76. 0% 78. 2% 74. 3% 70. 5% 70% 62. 1% 60% 56. 0% 52. 8% 50. 0% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2008

% of Women ages 30 -34 who have Never Married, 1940 -2000 30% 27.

% of Women ages 30 -34 who have Never Married, 1940 -2000 30% 27. 3% 25% 20% 14. 3% 15% 10% 6. 9% 5% 0% 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2007

6. Domestic Division of Labor

6. Domestic Division of Labor

mothers fathers

mothers fathers

Time spent per week on child care for fathers and mothers in homes with

Time spent per week on child care for fathers and mothers in homes with children 16 Ratio 2. 0: 1 14 Hours per week 12 10 Ratio 4. 1: 1 Ratio 3. 2: 1 8 6 4 2 0 1965 1975 mothers 1985 fathers 1995 2005

7. Sexuality

7. Sexuality

% Endorsing Same-Sex Marriage 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1996 1998 1999

% Endorsing Same-Sex Marriage 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1996 1998 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2009

III. EXPLAINING TRANSFORMATION

III. EXPLAINING TRANSFORMATION

The Question Women have always tried to increase their autonomy and reduce their subjection.

The Question Women have always tried to increase their autonomy and reduce their subjection. But throughout most of history these struggles have produced at best minimal change. Why do these struggles produce big changes sometimes and not others? Why in second half of the 20 th century was there such massive transformation?

The general answer While women have tried throughout history to increase their autonomy and

The general answer While women have tried throughout history to increase their autonomy and reduce their subordination, they could only succeed in doing this on a large scale once social conditions had changed in ways that made existing gender power relations fragile.

Three basic processes 1. Decline in a coherent interest among men to defend male

Three basic processes 1. Decline in a coherent interest among men to defend male domination 2. Erosion of institutional system of female domesticity which eroded women’s interest in traditional gender relations 3. Increase in capacity for challenge by women

1. The decline of coherent male interests in male domination Central explanation: The rapidly

1. The decline of coherent male interests in male domination Central explanation: The rapidly increasing economic demand for literate labor by male employers undermined male interest in excluding women.

2. The Crisis of Female Domesticity

2. The Crisis of Female Domesticity

Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system • Stable marriage/personal relations fostered

Traditional social supports for domesticity = a coherent system • Stable marriage/personal relations fostered domesticity • blocked work opportunities increased the attractiveness of domesticity • A family wage made domesticity economically feasible • dense social networks supported domesticity (neighbors, churches, communities, etc. ) • cultural norms and sexism reinforced identities and expectations

Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960 s • decline

Collapse of the system of coherent domesticity beginning in the 1960 s • decline of stable marriage means women cannot count of support of husbands • expansion of work opportunities increased the viability of alternatives to domesticity • decline of the family wage made domesticity economically difficult • erosion of dense social networks makes domesticity more isolated and difficult • challenge to cultural norms and traditional sexism contributes to new identities

3. The Women’s movement & Feminism

3. The Women’s movement & Feminism

V. THE WORLD TODAY: DILEMMAS AND PROSPECTS

V. THE WORLD TODAY: DILEMMAS AND PROSPECTS

1. Imagine two possible worlds World #1 World #2 • Average wages of men

1. Imagine two possible worlds World #1 World #2 • Average wages of men and women • Average wages of women are 75 -80% are about the same of wages of men • Good quality childcare is provided by • No childcare is provided by the government or employers free or at government or employers; private low cost daycare is expensive or of poor quality • Generous paid parental leave for • no paid parental leave for caregiving emergencies and early emergencies or early infant care World #1 is like Sweden World #2 is like the United States

2. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES • Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be

2. IRREVERSIBILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES • Dramatic decline in family size unlikely to be reversed: permanent erosion of lifetime domesticity as an ideal • Traditional marriage stability unlikely to be restored • Women’s labor force participation unlikely to be reversed • Women’s participation in powerful and influential positions unlikely to decline

3. The problem of Winners & Losers • Gender equality imposes costs on some

3. The problem of Winners & Losers • Gender equality imposes costs on some women and erodes some of the security that comes with traditional female dependency. • Certain ways of life, valued by many women and men, are threatened by gender equality. • Men have contradictory interests with respect to gender inequality: men have much to gain from gender equality, but some losses as well. Gains for men = opening up of choices around parenting & work; the cult of masculinity blocks the full development of personhood in men. Losses = more competition for higher jobs; end of genderbased privileges.

4. Three reforms 1. Pay Equity: equal pay for comparable work 2. Quality public

4. Three reforms 1. Pay Equity: equal pay for comparable work 2. Quality public provision of childcare in neighborhoods and workplaces 3. Generous paid parental leaves

Paid Parental Leaves in Various Countries Weeks 50 46. 9 46. 7 45 40

Paid Parental Leaves in Various Countries Weeks 50 46. 9 46. 7 45 40 35 27. 5 30 25 21. 8 20 18. 0 13. 0 15 10 5 0. 0 0 Sweden Germany Canada France Spain United Kingdom United States

The Family Ideals and Fallback Positions of Young Men and Women 90% 80% 70%

The Family Ideals and Fallback Positions of Young Men and Women 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Women's ideals Egalitarian family ideal Men's ideals Women's fallback position Neo-traditional family ideal Men's fallback position Self-reliant family ideal