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Socio-Cultural Issues Affecting Performance Contemporary Issues Commercialisation and Media
Learning Objectives Learning Objective: Understand the effects of commercialisation on sport Learning Outcomes: All: Describe how sport has been commercialised Most: Explain the relationship between sport and the media Some: Evaluate the effects of commercialisation on society, individual sports, performers, spectators
Key Terms • • • Commercialisation Spectatorship Advertising Sponsorship Golden traingle
Factors leading to the commercialisation of contemporary physical activity and sport • • • growing public interest and spectatorship, more media interest, professionalism, advertising, sponsorship
Factors leading to the commercialisation of contemporary physical activity and sport Growing public interest and spectatorship Commercialisation in sport has increased dramatically • This brings more opportunities to sell goods, use sport as a ‘billboard’ to show off company brands • Sport has benefited as commercial activity has attracted more money to increase participation, develop facilities and to improve sporting performance. • Sport is used to advertise goods • Sport is then promoted through this advertisement • Public awareness of sport is increased • More people are likely to participate • The more people who participate /spectate the more money the sport gets from businesses/advertising/sponsorship
Factors leading to the commercialisation of contemporary physical activity and sport Growing public interest and spectatorship • • Sport England research 2015 More people play sport at least once a week • • Jan – March 2015 – 16+ yr olds - 15. 5 million participated, compared to 4 million from 05/06 More men play than women – 40. 6% men once a week – 30. 7% women • More younger than older – 54. 8% 16 -25 yr olds – 31. 9% 26+ • • • More managerial/professional workers and intermediate social groups participate regularly than manual workers and unemployed The number of black and minority ethnic and while British adults playing sport is increasing Slightly more people with disabilities are taking part in sport – 17. 2%, up from 15. 1% in 05/06 • Increased number of people watching sports and attendances at live sporting events
Factors leading to the commercialisation of contemporary physical activity and sport More media interest, advertising and sponsorship • The fact that sports are televised leads to companies wishing to sponsor events and their participants • E. g. When England hosted the Rugby World Cup in 2015 the revenues from advertising for ITV went up by 13% • Players will be sponsored to advertise products through the media. The players/teams/sports who are shown more through the media will receive more sponsorship • Businesses will have to pay more to advertise through the bigger sporting events, bringing more money into the sports.
Factors leading to the commercialisation of contemporary physical activity and sport Professionalism • Professional players are more likely to attract sponsorship from commercial organisations. • E. g. Andy Murray signed a £ 15 million 4 year kit sponsorship from under armour in 2014 • With more sports and players becoming professional there’s more sponsorship, more money, so they can train more and afford higher quality training/coaching/facilities/equipment etc so performance improves, which in turn attracts more media attention and sponsorship
Positive impacts of the commercialisation of physical activity and sport On Sports • Sports can promote themselves through media, thus attracting more participants or spectators, which in turn leads to increased revenues. • More money in sport can be used to help develop facilities etc • Sports competitions (leagues/tournaments) can only take place if commercial companies invest significantly. – E. g. hockey – Investec London Cup, Investec Women’s Hockey League Finals, ‘Quicksticks’ programme in primary schools. On Individuals • Sponsorship of individual performers allows them to train full time and afford top quality facilities, coaching, equipment etc. On society • Media promotes sport, so more people can watch it, and are more likely to participate • More money coming into sport through media helps the sport develop competitions, leagues etc at grass roots levels and build better facilities across the country. On Spectators • Athletes who are sponsored and can train full-time improve performances, so better/more exciting to watch • More sport is shown on TV now, so more opportunity to watch • Better experience for spectators if an event has been supported well commercially as there is often extra entertainment.
Negative impacts of the commercialisation of physical activity and sport On Sports • Less popular sports attract less sponsorship and are therefore unable to develop their sport to the same extent as more popular sports. • Females and disabled athletes may lose out on commercial investment because they are less popular and therefore attract less media exposure for the potential sponsor On Individuals • Pressure to perform well to secure and keep sponsorship deals • Press to win and please sponsors and retain commercial interests has led to some deviant behaviour – e. g. drugs or violence • Performers are reported to be at the beck and call of the businesses and will have to attend promotional events, have to only wear their clothing and use their equipment. This can take up their time and create anxiety • Some performers find they are limited in their control over their careers, with sponsors demanding that they enter particular tournaments, or play when injured. On Spectators • Actual sporting action can take second place to advertisements for goods which they may not be interested in. • Ad breaks can be too intrusive and interrupt the flow of the game. • Spectators may not agree with a particular company’s ethics or may be against the use of goods being advertised – e. g. Heineken sponsoring Olympics – should alcohol be promoted through sports events? • Spectators may not want their team to be associated with particular brans • Spectators for some sports have to pay a considerable amount of money to watch – e. g. subscriptions to televised sports channels.
Coverage of sport by the media today and reasons for changes since the 1980 s Coverage of sport today is extensive and different types of media make sport accessible to many people. • - television –free to air, satellite-subscription, pay per-view, • - radio – dedicated sports stations, local and national radio • - written press – newspapers, magazines, internet
Coverage of sport by the media today and reasons for changes since the 1980 s In the 80 s • Most sports presenters were male • Most sports being covered were male • Sexism was a feature of sports coverage • Football hooliganism was rife and often the media were dominated by the negative aspects of sports spectators
Coverage of sport by the media today and reasons for changes since the 1980 s In the 90 s into the 21 st Century • Satellite TV was developed • Sky spent enormous sums on securing the rights to televise football, other TV companies have followed suit – BT sport • All different types of media are more available to most people – computers – internet, mobile phones – internet, 3/4 G, apps. • Media coverage is more global in terms of sports events recorded or streamed live, in the 1980 s it was limited to Olympics and World Cup. • More minority sports are represented, as are female and disabled sports, however they are still under-represented compared to the major sports and men.
Positive effects of the media on sport • Individual sports – Media can raise the profile of a sport – Media coverage can increase financial revenues in terms of sponsorship and funding for sports events and facilities. – Media can attract more funds for international teams which can in turn boost participation – Rules of sport have been influenced by the media, which can make it more accessible to a wider audience – Minority sports and a wider range of sports are represented. – The media can highlight sensational news about sport • Performers – Media an raise the profile of individual performers – Media coverage can increase financial revenues in terms of sponsorship and funding for sports events and facilities. – The media can highlight individual successes • Spectators – media can increase the numbers of people watching and participating • When Wimbledon is on more people play and watch it
Negative effects of the media on sport • Individual sports – rules and timings of games can be changed to suit the media and viewers in particular countries – Adverts can interrupt the flow of the game • Performers – The media can put pressure on individual sports performers and their families • Spectators – Media has highlighted the negative aspects of sports hooliganism
Relationship between sport and the media • Sport is viewed as a commodity (an article that an be traded) by commercial organisations.
Relationship between sport and the media • The relationship between sport, sponsorship and the media is often referred to as the ‘golden triangle’ Sport, media and sponsorship are interlinked – one can influence the other. The media show sports because of the perceived needs of viewers, but there also healthy advertising revenues. Sponsors use the media to advertise their products, and make them even more desirable by recruiting sports stars to promote them and be seen wearing their clothes or using their equipment Commercial organisations pay large sums of money to advertise their products in the media, which then pay sports organisations for the rights to show their sport Many sports get to raise their status and profile via the global media and thus can invest in the development of their elite athletes as well as increase grassroots sport