SOCIAL INTERACTION By Prof. Fernando R. Pedrosa, Ph. D. Prof. -n-charge
Meaning � � The process by which people act and react in relation to others. Distinctive characteristics of social interaction among people is that “HUMAN BEINGS INTERPRET OR DEFINE EACH OTHER’S ACTIONS. ”
� � The process of social interactions ranges from the most superficial contacts to deep, lasting, and complex relationships. Examples of this are: 1. Cliché 2. Gut 3. Peak
Frameworks used in Interaction 1. Definition of the situation – the process by which people interpret and evaluate the social context to select appropriate attitudes and behavior. - in this we actually construct our own social reality.
2. Presentation of the Self – this refers to the social ploys we use but seldom admit. - also refers to the “image of how we want to be seen by others. ”
3. Negotiated Order - refers to the fact that “people can reconstruct social reality through a process of internal change as they take a different view of everyday behavior.
The term negotiation refers to the attempt of one to reach agreement with others concerning some objectives. Sometimes, it is referred to as bargaining, compromising, trading off, mediating, exchanging, wheeling and dealing, and collusion. -
Types of Social Interaction 1. 2. 3. Cooperation – refers to collaborative efforts between people to achieve a common goal. Conflict – involves direct struggle between individuals or groups over commonly valued resources or goals. Competition – a form of conflict in which there is agreement on the means that can be used to pursue an end.
4. Negotiation – in this, two or more competing parties reach a mutually satisfactory agreement. 5. Coercion – this appears to be one-sided, one imposing an action or behavior on another. - occurs through the use of physical force.
Elements of Social Interaction 1. Statuses – refer to positions in social structure; also applies to any position that determines where a person “fits” within the society. a. Ascribed b. Achieved * master status – one that has exceptional importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life.
2. Roles – refer to expected behavior, obligations, and privileges. - people learn how to play their roles by observing and interacting with other people who are more experienced than themselves. This is known as SOCIALIZATION.
- - - Role strain – when people find it difficult to perform the role expected of them. Role conflict – occurs when the carrying out of one role automatically results in the violation of another. Role exit – the process by which people disengage from social roles that have been central to their lives.
Symbolic Interaction Three Basic Premises: (Acc. to George Mead) 1. People act toward everything they encounter on the basis of what those people, activities, and situations mean to them. 2. People learn what things mean by observing how other people respond to them through social interaction.
3. As a result of on-going interaction, sounds (including words), gestures, facial expressions, and body postures (body language) acquire symbolic meaning shared by people who belong to the same culture.
Dramaturgical Approach * This refers to the social roles individuals play in this world, given their respective statuses in society.
Social Construction of Reality � � � The social world has an objective existence. It has long existed long before we were born. It affects us throughout our lives, and is likely to continue long after we die. Society is also affecting the behavior of many creative individuals. If the society affects individuals, then the individuals also affect society.
� The social construction of reality refers to the process by which individuals creatively shape reality through social interaction.
Ethnomethodology � � Taken from the Greek “ethno” which means understanding of cultural surroundings that people share, and “methodology” which designates a system of methods or principles. Refers to the study of the everyday commonsense understandings that people have of the world around them. (Harold Garfinkel, 1950 s)
Influences of Social Interaction � � Goals and motivations Norms or roles
Types of Social Interaction � � � Non-verbal behavior Unfocused and focused interaction Group
Institution and Social Organizations � In society, there at least five areas where the basic needs of the people have to be met: 1. Family sector 2. Education sector 3. Economic sector 4. Religious sector 5. Political sector