SLAVES AND MASTERS America Past and Present Chapter

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SLAVES AND MASTERS America: Past and Present Chapter 11

SLAVES AND MASTERS America: Past and Present Chapter 11

The Divided Society of the Old South l Wealth divides white Southerners by class

The Divided Society of the Old South l Wealth divides white Southerners by class l White society also divided by region l Black society also divided with about 6% free l Race divides all Southerners by caste

The World of Southern Blacks l Constant resistance of Southern ideology, repression l Constant

The World of Southern Blacks l Constant resistance of Southern ideology, repression l Constant aspiration to freedom l Psychic survival helped create and maintain a unique African American ethnicity

Slaves’ Daily Life and Labor l 90% of slaves lived on plantations or farms

Slaves’ Daily Life and Labor l 90% of slaves lived on plantations or farms l Most slaves on cotton plantations worked sunup to sundown, 6 days/week l About 75% of slaves were field workers, about 5% worked in industry l Urban slaves had more autonomy than rural slaves

Slave Families, Kinship, and Community l Normal family life difficult for slaves fathers cannot

Slave Families, Kinship, and Community l Normal family life difficult for slaves fathers cannot always protect children l families vulnerable to breakup by masters l l Most reared in strong, two-parent families l Extended families provide nurture, support amid horror of slavery l Slave culture a family culture that provided a sense of community

African American Religion l Black Christianity the cornerstone of an emerging African American culture

African American Religion l Black Christianity the cornerstone of an emerging African American culture l Whites fear religion’s subversive potential, try to supervise churches and preaching l Slave religion kept secret from whites reaffirmed the inherent joy of life l preaches the inevitable day of liberation l

Resistance and Rebellion l 1800 --Gabriel Prosser l 1822 --Denmark Vesey l 1831 --Nat

Resistance and Rebellion l 1800 --Gabriel Prosser l 1822 --Denmark Vesey l 1831 --Nat Turner

Resistance and Rebellion (2) l Run away often aided by the Underground Railroad l

Resistance and Rebellion (2) l Run away often aided by the Underground Railroad l Work-related work slowdowns l sabotage l poison masters l l Stories, songs asserting equality

Slave Rebellions and Uprisings, 1800 -1831

Slave Rebellions and Uprisings, 1800 -1831

Free Blacks in the Old South l Southern free blacks severely restricted Sense of

Free Blacks in the Old South l Southern free blacks severely restricted Sense of solidarity with slaves l Generally unable to help l l Repression increased as time passed l By 1860 some state legislatures were proposing laws to force free blacks to emigrate or be enslaved

White Society in the Antebellum South l Only a small percentage of slaveowners lived

White Society in the Antebellum South l Only a small percentage of slaveowners lived in aristocratic mansions l less than 1% of the white population owned 50 or more slaves l Most Southern whites were yeomen farmers

The Planters' World l Big planters set tone, values of Southern life l Planter

The Planters' World l Big planters set tone, values of Southern life l Planter wealth based on commerce l land speculation l slave-trading l cotton planting l l Plantations managed as businesses l Romantic ideals imitated only by richest

Planters and Paternalism l Planters pride themselves on paternalism l Better living standard for

Planters and Paternalism l Planters pride themselves on paternalism l Better living standard for Southern slaves than others in Western Hemisphere l Relatively decent treatment due in part to their increasing economic value after 1808 l Planters actually deal little with slaves l Slaves managed by overseers l Violent coercion accepted by all planters

Small Slaveholders l Slave conditions worst with fewer than 20 slaves share the master's

Small Slaveholders l Slave conditions worst with fewer than 20 slaves share the master's poverty l slaves at the complete mercy of the master l l Masters often worked alongside the slaves l Most slaves would have preferred the economic and cultural stability of the plantation

Yeomen Farmers l Small farmers resent large planters l Some aspire to planter status

Yeomen Farmers l Small farmers resent large planters l Some aspire to planter status l Many saw slavery as guaranteeing their own liberty and independence l Slavery viewed as a system for keeping blacks "in their place"

A Closed Mind a Closed Society l Planters fear growth of abolitionism l Planters

A Closed Mind a Closed Society l Planters fear growth of abolitionism l Planters encourage closing of ranks l Slavery defended as a positive good Africans depicted as inferior l slavery defended with Bible l slavery a humane asylum to improve Africans l Slavery superior to Northern wage labor l l Contrary points of view suppressed

Slavery and the Southern Economy l White Southerners perceived their economic interests to be

Slavery and the Southern Economy l White Southerners perceived their economic interests to be tied to slavery l Lower South: slave plantation society l Upper South: farming and slave-trading region

The Internal Slave Trade l Mixed farming in Virginia and Maryland l Need less

The Internal Slave Trade l Mixed farming in Virginia and Maryland l Need less labor, more capital l Upper South sells slaves to lower South l Virginia, Maryland, and Kentucky take on characteristics of industrializing North l Sectional loyalty of upper South uncertain

Slave Concentration, 1820

Slave Concentration, 1820

The Rise of the Cotton Kingdom

The Rise of the Cotton Kingdom "Short-staple" cotton drives cotton boom Cotton gin makes seed extraction easy Year-round requirements suited to slave labor Cotton in Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, east Texas l Large planters dominate cotton production l 1850 --South produces 75% of world's cotton, cotton the most important U. S. business l l

Slave Concentration, 1860

Slave Concentration, 1860

Slavery and Industrialization l Southerners resent dependence on Northern industry, commerce l Southerners project

Slavery and Industrialization l Southerners resent dependence on Northern industry, commerce l Southerners project industrial schemes some propose using free white labor l others propose the use of slaves l l Slaves work in southern factories l High cotton profits discourage shift to industry

The

The "Profitability" Issue l Slavery not profitable for South as a whole l White small farmers have lower living standards than most Northern farmers l Profits from cotton not well-distributed l Slave system results in waste of human resources, Southern underdevelopment

Worlds in Conflict l Separate Southern worlds planters l slaves l less affluent whites

Worlds in Conflict l Separate Southern worlds planters l slaves l less affluent whites l free blacks l l Held together by plantation economy, web of customary relationships