Skellig by David Almond I found him in

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Skellig by David Almond I found him in the garage on a Sunday afternoon.

Skellig by David Almond I found him in the garage on a Sunday afternoon. It was the day after we moved into Falconer Road. The winter was ending. Mum had said we’d be moving just in time for the spring. Nobody else was there. Just me. The others were inside the house with Doctor Death, worrying about the baby. Why has the author decided to call the doctor ‘Doctor Death’ Why do does think word thetugged author reveal decided theand He was. How lying there in you the darkness behind the tea chests, in the dust dirt. It was as if he’d been there forever. He was filthy and pale and dried out to give condition the of. Estate the garage? Agent little torch? and I thought he was dead. I couldn’t have been a more wrong. I’d soon begin to see the truth about him, that there’d never been another creature like him in the world. Why is shoved a good word to use? We called it the garage because that’s what the estate agent, Mr Stone, called it. It was more like a demolition site or a rubbish dump or like one of those ancient warehouses they keep pulling down at the quay. Stone led us down the garden, tugged the door open and shone his little torch into the gloom. We shoved our heads in at the doorway with him. ‘You have to see it with your mind’s eye, ’ he said. ‘See it cleaned, with new doors and the roof repaired. See it as a wonderful two-car garage. ’ He looked at me with a stupid grin on his face. ‘Or something for you, lad – a hideaway for you and your mates. What about that, eh? ’

Skellig by David Almond I looked away. I didn’t want anything to do with

Skellig by David Almond I looked away. I didn’t want anything to do with him. All the way round the house it had been the same. Just see it in your mind’s eye. Just imagine what could be done. All the way round I kept thinking of the old man, Ernie Myers, that had lived here on his own for years. He’d been dead nearly a week before they found him under the table in the kitchen. That’s what I saw when Stone told us about seeing with the mind’s eye. He even said it when we got to the dining room and there was an old cracked toilet sitting there in the corner behind a plywood screen. I just wanted him to shut up, but he whispered that towards the end Ernie couldn’t manage the stairs. His bed was brought in here and a toilet was put in so everything was easy for him. Stone looked at me like he didn’t think I should know about such things. I wanted to get out to get back to our old house again, but Mum and Dad took it all in. They went on like it was going to be some big adventure. They bought the house. They started cleaning it and scrubbing it and painting it. Then the baby came too early. And here we were. The last few sentences are simple and short. Why?

OF COURSE superheroes may be popular all over the world, but that does not

OF COURSE superheroes may be popular all over the world, but that does not mean that everybody likes them. Some people argue that their adventures are far-fetched and unrealistic. They are accused of having a harmful influence on children who put themselves in danger by copying their heroes’ impossible deeds. Others enjoy the stories for their excitement, suspense and escape from reality. Fans revel in knowing every detail about their superheroes: their individual powers, their intriguing costumes, their unique physical features – even their family backgrounds. 13. individual. . . unique What do these words on page 8 tell you about superheroes? ……………………………………………………… 19. In the comic strip, two different spellings are used – Superkid and Souperkid. Explain why these two spellings are used. ……………………………………… ……………………………………… ………………

19. In the comic strip, two different spellings are used – Superkid and Souperkid.

19. In the comic strip, two different spellings are used – Superkid and Souperkid. 13. individual … unique. What do these words on page 8 tell you about superheroes? Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for responses showing understanding of unique and/or individual, eg: ● they are special; ● they are all different; ● one of a kind. Do not accept: ■ individual or unique as the explanation; ■ direct quotation from text without explanation. Explain why these two spellings are used. Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers which explain how the different spellings relate to the different views of the characters / writer or answers which refer to the debunking of the superhero, eg: ● the boy calls him Superkid because he thinks it is an ordinary superhero like Superman, but it’s actually written as Souperkid, because he relies on soup to give him strength; ● people call him Superkid but really he’s Souperkid because soup gives him energy; ● the boy thinks Souperkid means super, as in amazing, but it just means soup; ● it’s a way for the writer to let you know that the boy is wrong – that this is a different type of superhero, one that actually needs soup. Award 1 mark for recognising that some misunderstanding / mismatch in interpreting the name has taken place or for indicating the humorous intent, eg: ● the boy calls him Superkid, the writer calls him Souperkid; ● because Souperkid spells it Souper, but the boy hears it as Super; ● there are two different people saying the name; ● it’s meant to be a pun / joke. Do not accept answers that imply that there are two characters or one character with two names for different occasions, eg: ● it’s Super when he’s being a superhero and Souper when he needs soup. Or answers that make a simple association with super(hero) and soup, eg: ● it’s Super for being heroic and Souper because he needs soup.

The Woodbridge Arena was buzzing last night as this year’s basketball championships reached their

The Woodbridge Arena was buzzing last night as this year’s basketball championships reached their climax, Goalball Scores! Fast, furious, skilful and fun! That’s the way people describe goalball, a sport that is winning new fans every day. It’s a thrilling indoor game for teams of three. The aim is to score by getting the ball over the opposing team’s goal line. 6. Fast, furious, skilful and fun! (page 7) Why do you think the writer described goalball in this way? Explain as fully as you can. …………………………………………………………… …………………… The favourites made their mark early on and set the pace for the game as the Eagles struggled against the superior height of Johnson and Murray. The pair dominated the passing and made sure the Arrows ended their second quarter with an overwhelming 34 point lead. Rob Lane’s long passes brought the Eagles back to life just after the break and upset the opposition for a time. But the Arrows kept their nerve to secure a narrow victory. Gomez, the victorious captain, later praised the newly redesigned wheelchairs the team are trying out. “We really noticed the extra flexibility of the wheels. It made turning easier and that helped our confidence. ” The future of the game certainly looks bright on the evidence of this final.

6. Fast, furious, skilful and fun! (page 7) Why do you think the writer

6. Fast, furious, skilful and fun! (page 7) Why do you think the writer described goalball in this way? Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers which explain the positive impact of the quoted sentence and refer to the intended effect upon the reader, eg: ● the writer chose these words because it sums up the game in a few words, making the reader 10. Close Contest (page 8) is a sports report which includes specialist sports language. Explain the meaning of the phrases listed. One has been done for you. up to 2 marks think it is an interesting sport; Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and ● to make other people want to have a go and make it sound exciting; literary features at word and sentence level. ● to encourage other people to play and to show it’s fun to play because you’re moving about a) dominated the passing a lot and it is very skilful. Award 1 mark for answers which give a simple explanation of the positive attitude expressed in Award 1 mark for answers which show an understanding of the word ‘dominated’ through an indication the quoted sentences or the intended effect upon the reader, eg: that one team was playing better than the other, eg: ● she enjoys it and thinks that it is fun; ● had the ball for most of the time / their passing was the best / were in control of the ball. ● because she wanted to make it exciting for the person to read; ● so that more people will want to come and play it. or which relate, in simple terms, the content of the first sentence to the sport of goalball as described in the article, eg: ● you’re not allowed to keep the ball for more than 8 seconds so the game is quite fast; ● because in no other game do you have to be blindfolded, and it’s fast because you’re only allowed the ball for a certain time; ● the writer described it as fast because the game moves quickly. Furious because it is a team game and you want to get the ball off the other team. Skilful because it takes some practice. Do not accept undeveloped answers which suggest that one team played well, eg: passed to each other / good passing. b) the opposition Award 1 mark for answers showing an understanding of the word ‘opposition’ in the context of the sports report, eg: ● the other team / side / the opposite team.

6. Sharon compares learning to reverse a lorry to trying to thread a needle

6. Sharon compares learning to reverse a lorry to trying to thread a needle with gloves on. 11. What features of the text tell you that it has only just been written? Find two. ……………………………………………………………………. Why is this a good way to describe what it is like to reverse a lorry? ………………………………………………………………………. . ………………

11. Which features of the text tell you that it has only just been

11. Which features of the text tell you that it has only just been written? Find two. up to 2 marks Assessment focus 4: comment on the structure and organisation of texts, including grammatical and presentational features at text level. Award 1 mark for each answer that refers to a relevant feature of the text, up to a maximum of 2. The following are examples of common acceptable responses: ● the heading ‘Latest Sports Report’; ● the web page menu ‘Sports News’; ● the report includes the words ‘last night’; ● the date is recent / the date / 19/03/2004; ● it’s this year’s. If two answers from the same category are given, the second answer should not be credited. Do not accept answers where a whole sentence is quoted from the text unless target words are emphasised in some way. 6. Sharon compares learning to reverse a lorry to trying to thread a needle with gloves on. Why is this a good way to describe what it is like to reverse a lorry? up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for responses which recognise that the writer has compared reversing a lorry with another difficult task to show difficult it is, eg: ● threading a needle with gloves on is hard so she’s saying it’s very difficult; ● because they’re both hard things to do. Award 1 mark for responses which recognise that the description shows how difficult one of the tasks is, eg: ● because reversing a lorry is very difficult; ● because it’s very hard to thread a needle with gloves on; ● because it’s very hard and almost impossible; ● it’s a good way to describe what it is like to reverse a lorry because it is difficult to thread a needle with gloves on. Also award 1 mark for references to the use of figurative language and the impact of this, eg: ● Sharon is using a simile and is trying to get across the difficulty of what she is doing.

She decided to get a box to put the photographs in. She twisted round

She decided to get a box to put the photographs in. She twisted round and ran to the stairs. ‘Those who hurry fastest are the first to fall’ was one of her Grampa’s sayings, and it was as if she heard him saying it now, right out loud in her ear as she stumbled on the top step. Seconds later she landed with a crash at the foot of the stairs. Her head hurt, her bottom hurt and her legs throbbed painfully. 19. Grampa said to Fiona, ‘Those who hurry fastest are the first to fall. ’ (page 11) Explain what he meant. …………………………………………………………………… Fiona was quite alone in the big empty house. She started to get up. Her legs were caught underneath her body and she tried to heave herself up and straighten them out. ‘Oww, ’ she yelped. A stabbing pain flared in her knees. She moved again, this time more carefully. 20. … pain flared in her knees. (page 12) Why is this an effective way of describing how Fiona felt after she fell down the stairs? ……………………………………………………………………… ……………. .

20. … pain flared in her knees. (page 12) 19. Grampa said to Fiona,

20. … pain flared in her knees. (page 12) 19. Grampa said to Fiona, ‘Those who hurry fastest are the first to fall. ’ (page 11) Explain what he meant. up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers which show an understanding of the metaphorical significance of the phrase, eg: ● if you like to be first you will pay in a way; ● people who rush things never get them done. Award 1 mark for answers which give a literal interpretation of the phrase, eg: ● people who rush will trip over; ● you shouldn’t hurry or you might fall. Also award 1 mark for explanations which go beyond a literal interpretation of the sentence but which do not refer to the consequences, eg: ● he meant don’t rush what you are doing, take your time. Do not accept answers which refer specifically to Fiona falling down the stairs without generalisation. Why is this an effective way of describing how Fiona felt after she fell down the stairs? up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on the writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers which make explicit or implicit reference to the impact of ‘flared’ through references to speed or suddenness, to the intermittent nature of the pain or to fire / flames, eg: ● it’s like pain rushed round her legs very fast; ● it was like her knees were on fire. Award 1 mark for answers which refer in general terms to severe pain or which identify authorial technique but do not relate it to ‘flared’, eg: ● because the pain was everywhere in her knees; ● because it helps you to imagine the pain.

Music isn’t just a question of sounds. The thing about playing percussion is that

Music isn’t just a question of sounds. The thing about playing percussion is that you are not just creating sound, not just playing notes or beating out a pattern. You are creating emotions from inside yourself that can be sometimes beautiful and uplifting but are, sometimes, ugly or disturbing. To be a good musician, music has to come from deep inside you, from a seed growing in your heart. 10. What do you think Evelyn meant by a seed growing in your heart? ………………………………………………………… Not far under the surface of the Earth, it is hot. The further down you go inside the Earth, the hotter it becomes. Deep, deep down below our feet, it is so hot that even the rock melts and is nine times hotter than boiling water. In places where the Earth’s surface is weak, this liquid rock can bubble up and burst through. These weak spots are the world’s volcanoes. 6. . this liquid rock can. . . burst through What does the word burst tell us about the movement of the lava? ……………………………………………………………

6. … this liquid rock can … burst through 10. What do you think

6. … this liquid rock can … burst through 10. What do you think Evelyn meant by a seed growing in your heart? 1 mark Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for answers that give a plausible interpretation of the image with reference to at least one of the following ideas: ■ emotion / passion ■ creation ■ talent / practice ■ inspiration. Examples: ● music comes from a deep place in your heart and soul ● you’re like a seed growing into a tree and that means your musical talent is growing ● she means that you have to have the talent and if you go on with it, you’ll get better ● you have to use your heart to play good music. Do not accept answers that are very close to the original text without further interpretation, eg: music isn’t just a question of sounds / music has to come from deep inside you. What does the word burst tell us about the movement of the lava? up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers referring to explosiveness / building up of pressure, eg: ● it’s like it blows the top of the mountain off and comes squirting out from inside the Earth ● it tells us that the lava is going to break through in something like spring-like action ● it moves with force and speed and finally overcomes the restraint of the rock itself. Award 1 mark for answers referring to speed, suddenness or power, eg: ● it comes out fast ● it tells us that the lava is strong and powerful ● fast and can demolish anything in its way. Do not accept answers that simply present an analogy, or refer to eruption, without explaining the effect of the word burst, eg: ● it bursts like a balloon ● it erupts.

On that fateful day in AD 79, the town nearest the volcano was completely

On that fateful day in AD 79, the town nearest the volcano was completely smothered under a layer of ash and rock. This unusual blanket protected the remains of the town of Pompeii for hundreds of years. Gradually it has been uncovered and many fascinating discoveries have been made. By studying these remains experts have found out about life in the area near the volcano and about the day the volcano erupted. They found scenes preserved exactly as the people had left them: tables laid for meals with loaves of bread, baskets of eggs and nuts, all now solidified. 18. . trapped in time. Why do you think Pompeii was described in this way? ………………………………………… Today, thousands of tourists flock to see the remains of this unique town, trapped in time. People are fascinated by the opportunity to see what life was like two thousand years ago. Many also make the difficult climb up Mount Vesuvius to peer into the smouldering crater. The huge number of visitors who visit Pompeii every year is bringing a large set of problems. Parts of the ruins are being worn away just by the large numbers of people who pass through. Furthermore, not all visitors treat the site with respect. There has been vandalism, some treasures have been stolen and some people just don’t realise the danger of clambering over the remains – both to themselves and to the ruins. One archaeologist has gone as far as to describe what is happening now as ‘the seconddeath of Pompeii’. 19. Explain why the archaeologist believes that he is watching the second death of Pompeii. ………………………………………………

18. … trapped in time. Why do you think Pompeii was described in this

18. … trapped in time. Why do you think Pompeii was described in this way? 1 mark Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for answers which refer to the fact that the town was hidden / frozen / preserved for 2000 years, eg: ● nothing changed / it stood still for 2000 years ● all the valuables were hidden under the rubble ● it was preserved by the layer of ash and rock ● it’s like it was in 79 AD. Do not accept references to people being trapped, eg: ● the people couldn’t move. 19. Explain why the archaeologist believes that he is watching the second death of Pompeii. up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for reference to any of the following points, to a maximum of 2 marks: ■ destruction of Pompeii (outcome) ■ tourism / people stealing treasures, etc (cause) ■ again / for the second time. Examples: ● it’s going to be destroyed again because of all the damage done by tourists (2 marks) ● he believes that it’s going to be ruined like it was by the volcano (2 marks) ● because everything is being vandalised and stolen. (1 mark) Do not accept references to Vesuvius / the volcano erupting again.

Dear All, Italy, May 18 th Nature peacefu l? Forget it! Mo unt Vesuvius

Dear All, Italy, May 18 th Nature peacefu l? Forget it! Mo unt Vesuvius is the most threatenin g thing I’ve ever seen. Yesterda y, it was huffing an d puffing cloud s of smoke. So it wa s closed to visit ors. Today we were in Pompeii. The ruins are impressive and feel as tho ugh the Romans ha ve only just left. Mind you, I don ’t think the ruin s will be here for eve r. I saw an idiot hacking off and stealing a piece of mosaic. I only to ok photos. Cheers, Neena ing. ‘A the iron h it w r othe e said lp her m ay like this, ’ sh hen e h o t d kitc ad lla ha over the to do on Citrone ll e a v a lt h e o gt I’ll m fine thin sly. ‘I bet you er way. h s n o ’ r. o r c e d r t t e e rath start of bu a lump ure and t e ic k li p r is o h flo at t giggled Garnet s It was a. ks. y k s e … for wee oard, ’ t th a n e p e u b d b ad ke She loo s empty, as it h recious ironing p a , y to m smooth et back g o t t o ly. ‘I’ve g ella grim n o r it C said 22. Neena could have written 9. Citronella said: I saw someone taking a. . . ‘I’ve got to get back to my precious ironing board. ’ but instead she wrote How can you tell that she really did not like ironing? I saw an idiot hacking off and stealing a. . . ………………………………………… ………………………………………… What does Neena’s choice of words tell you about the way she felt? …………………………………………………………………… …………

22. Neena could have written I saw someone taking a … but instead she

22. Neena could have written I saw someone taking a … but instead she wrote I saw an idiot hacking off and stealing a … What does Neena’s choice of words tell you about the way she felt? 1 mark Assessment focus 3: deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts (simple inference). Award 1 mark for answers referring to anger / disapproval, eg: ● they show that she’s angry / mad / disgusted ● it shows she didn’t approve ● she thought it was as bad as stealing from someone’s home ● she thought it was wrong. Do not accept answers which refer to disappointment / surprise or to the implication that the thief was stupid. 9. Citronella said: ‘I’ve got to get back to my precious ironing board. ’ How can you tell that she really did not like ironing? up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers which refer to the ironic use of the word precious, eg: ● she was being sarcastic / she meant the opposite of what she said ● because when she said ‘precious’ she meant it in a ‘sarcy’ way ● because it wasn’t precious, it was a horrible job she had to do. Award 1 mark for answers which refer to her manner of speech or draw attention to the word precious, eg: ● she said it grimly / grumpily ● she sounded sulky ● the way she said ‘my precious ironing board’ ● she said ‘got to’ ● she uses the word precious. Do not accept references to crossness / melting on the floor like butter (ie references to the top of the page), eg: ● she said it crossly ● she said ‘a fine thing to do on a day like this’.

Garnet hastily pushed the bills behind the calendar on the shelf over the sink.

Garnet hastily pushed the bills behind the calendar on the shelf over the sink. The door opened with its own particular squeak and her father came in. He went to the sink and washed his hands. He looked tired and his neck was sunburned. ‘What a day!’ he said. ‘One more like this –’ and he shook his head. It was too hot to eat. How beautiful is the rain! After the dust and heat, In the broad and fiery street, In the narrow lane, How beautiful is the rain! How it clatters along the roofs, Like the tramp of hoofs! 13. It was too hot to eat. Why is this short sentence on page 7 so effective? 21. Why do you think the poet chooses the words clatters and tramp of hoofs …………………………………………… …………………………………………… to describe the sound of the rain? …………………………………………… ………………………

13. It was too hot to eat. Why is this short sentence on page

13. It was too hot to eat. Why is this short sentence on page 7 so effective? up to 2 marks Assessment focus 6: identify and comment on writers’ purposes and viewpoints and the overall effect of the text on the reader. Award 2 marks for answers referring to authorial intent to achieve one of the following effects, eg: ■ summary of the effect of the heat, eg: ● it’s quickly telling you what everyone feels ● that sentence sums up the feeling of the whole day ■ pathos, eg: ● underlines how miserable they all are ● it was sad that they thought they could all have dinner and then they couldn’t ■ irony, eg: ● it shows that Mother and Garnet thought they would save their father from being upset but they didn’t. Award 1 mark for answers referring to the author’s purpose to convey the heat, eg: ● it makes you think it’s really hot ● it tells you how hot it is. Do not accept explanations for the loss of appetite, eg: ● because it must be really hot if someone doesn’t want to eat their dinner ● when it’s so hot you don’t feel like eating. 21. Why do you think the poet chooses the words clatters and tramp of hoofs to describe the sound of the rain? 1 mark Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for answers which refer to the force or volume of the rain, eg: ● because the rain is loud / heavy / hard ● it’s hitting the roofs.

Sussex. A days bet drought lasted 6 0 ween 17 th March 15 th

Sussex. A days bet drought lasted 6 0 ween 17 th March 15 th Ma and y 1893 w hen not drop of r a single ain periods o fell. Now, as the n, f dry wea ther hav serious i ea mpact on people. 28. For Sussex, the writer could have written there was no rain but instead wrote: … not a single drop of rain fell. Why do you think he wrote it in this way? …………………………………………… ……………… 15 b. Some of the language in the letters is also intended to be humorous. Explain what is unusual about Mum calling bees sweet and jolly on page 4. ……………………………………………

28. For Sussex, the writer could have written there was no rain but instead

28. For Sussex, the writer could have written there was no rain but instead wrote: . . . not a single drop of rain fell. Why do you think he wrote it in this way? 1 mark Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for answers to do with emphasis on the lack of rain, eg: ● because it is a more descriptive way of saying there was absolutely no rain ● it sounds more precise ● to make it sound even drier. Also award 1 mark for answers which recognise the writer’s deliberate choice of words for dramatic effect, eg: ● to make it sound dramatic / shocking / desperate ● it sounds more powerful than just saying there was no rain ● this gives more impact ● to make it seem really bad. Do not accept standard answers which are not specific to this text, eg: ● to make it sound more descriptive / interesting / effective / realistic / exciting ● to create a picture in your head / an 15. b) Some of the language in the letters is also intended to be humorous. Explain what is unusual about Mum calling bees sweet and jolly on page 4. 1 mark Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ uses of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 1 mark for answers that recognise any one of the following: ■ the anomaly in this description of bees, eg: ● bees sting / bees are dangerous ● bees aren’t ‘sweet’ / ‘jolly’ ● bees can sting you. Norman’s mum is saying they’re nice ● well it’s funny because she didn’t warn Norman about them she just said ‘sweet busy bees’ ■ the sarcasm, eg: ● she’s being sarcastic ● she’s trying to be funny ■ the anomaly in the mother’s behaviour, eg: ● she’s only pretending ● she wants him to be scared of getting stung ● usually people don’t like bees but she’s talking as if they’re nice gentle creatures ● mum was trying reverse psychology on him ■ the intention behind the words, eg: ● she’s trying to persuade him to come back inside. Do not accept: ● bees can hurt you / sting so Mum was trying to keep Norman calm ● she was trying not to scare Norman.

21. The writer could have said that the Earthship is cheap to run, but

21. The writer could have said that the Earthship is cheap to run, but instead he wrote dirt cheap. Why do you think he chose these words? ………………………………………… …………………… 22. ‘Earthship’ is made up of two words: earth and ship. Why are these two words used for this new type of house? Earth ……………………………………………. ……… Ship ……………………………………………. ………

21. The writer could have said that the Earthship is cheap to run, but

21. The writer could have said that the Earthship is cheap to run, but instead he wrote dirt cheap. Why do you think he chose these words? up to 2 marks Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ uses of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. Award 2 marks for answers that link the cheapness of the building materials with the cheapness of running / building the house, eg: ● because the house is built from dirt and it doesn’t cost much to run ● he picked those words to describe how cheap the house is because it fits with the fact that it’s made of dirt and junk and rubbish and cheap to build and has low bills ● he chose these words because the house is extremely cheap to run and is made out of dirty old materials. Award 1 mark for reference to the house having low maintenance costs or to the fact that it is built using waste products, eg: ● it’s just telling you that it’s very cheap to run ● so that someone who wants one knows that it is super cheap to run ● because it’s very cheap for water, heat and electricity ● because the house is made out of dirt and recycled rubbish. Do not credit repetition of the phrase ‘cheap to run’ without any expansion / explanation, eg: ● because the Earthship is made from recycled goods that you could call rubbish or dirt, (1 mark), the house is cheap to run (0 marks) ● the house is cheap / cheap to run (0 marks) Do not accept answers about the cheapness of dirt or of the house unless linked to the Earthship’s costs or materials, eg: ● dirt is free / very cheap ● there’s a lot of dirt there ● the Earthship is a really cheap house. 22. ‘Earthship’ is made up of two words: earth and ship. Why are these two words used for this new type of house? Assessment focus 5: explain and comment on writers’ uses of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level. a) earth up to 2 marks Award 2 marks for reference to the environmental aspect of the Earthship, eg: ● it’s a house design that saves the Earth / environment / planet ● it’s eco-friendly. Award 1 mark for reference to any one of the following points: ■ built into the earth, eg: it’s an underground house ■ uses earth in its construction, eg: it is built into the ground / soil / earth ■ uses natural resources, eg: it’s made out of natural things. b) ship 1 mark Award 1 mark for reference to either of the following points: ■ figurative interpretation, eg: ● it’s self-contained / self-sufficient ● it’s like a space ship because it’s meant to ‘travel’ into the future ● it’s very complex to run like a space ship ■ the architect’s quotation, eg: ● it’s a home that will sail into the future ● it will sail long into the future as the walls stay for 800 years.