SKELETAL SYSTEM SKELETAL SYSTEM Organs bones SKELETAL SYSTEM

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SKELETAL SYSTEM

SKELETAL SYSTEM

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones – ligaments

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones – ligaments

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones – ligaments – cartilages

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones – ligaments – cartilages

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones – ligaments – cartilages – joints

SKELETAL SYSTEM • Organs – bones – ligaments – cartilages – joints

 • Skeletal System Functions – Support & Protection – Movement – Mineral storage

• Skeletal System Functions – Support & Protection – Movement – Mineral storage – Blood cell production – Leverage

 • Classification of bones

• Classification of bones

 • Classification of bones – Long bones

• Classification of bones – Long bones

 • Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones”

• Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones”

 • Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short

• Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short

 • Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short •

• Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short • Flat

 • Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short •

• Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short • Flat • Irregular

 • Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short •

• Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short • Flat • Irregular • Sesamoid

 • Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short •

• Classification of bones – Long bones – “Other Bones” • Short • Flat • Irregular • Sesamoid • Wormian

 • Structure of long bones

• Structure of long bones

 • Structure of “other bones”

• Structure of “other bones”

ØBone Development and Growth • Intramembranous ossification – Mesenchymal CT converted into bone

ØBone Development and Growth • Intramembranous ossification – Mesenchymal CT converted into bone

ØBone Development and Growth • Endochondral ossification – Cartilage converted into bone

ØBone Development and Growth • Endochondral ossification – Cartilage converted into bone

ØBone Development and Growth • Increasing Length of Bone – Requires the epiphyseal plates

ØBone Development and Growth • Increasing Length of Bone – Requires the epiphyseal plates

ØBone Development and Growth • Appositional growth (Increase in thickness) – requires the osteoblasts

ØBone Development and Growth • Appositional growth (Increase in thickness) – requires the osteoblasts from the periosteum

ØBone Remodeling • Requires osteoblasts and osteoclasts

ØBone Remodeling • Requires osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Ø Factors Regulating Bone Growth • Growth hormone • Thyroid hormone • Sex hormones

Ø Factors Regulating Bone Growth • Growth hormone • Thyroid hormone • Sex hormones • Vitamin A and C • Vitamin D

Aging and the Skeletal System

Aging and the Skeletal System

Incidence of hip fractures with age

Incidence of hip fractures with age

 • http: //courses. washington. edu/b onephys/opop/opdem. html

• http: //courses. washington. edu/b onephys/opop/opdem. html

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

 • Non-modifiable risk factors: – Being female – Thin and/or small frame –

• Non-modifiable risk factors: – Being female – Thin and/or small frame – Advanced age – A family history – Early menopause – Caucasian or Asian descent – Being post-menopausal

 • Modifiable Risk Factors: –Smoking and alcohol –High protein diets (? ) –Sedentary

• Modifiable Risk Factors: –Smoking and alcohol –High protein diets (? ) –Sedentary lifestyles –Excessive exercise –Some drugs (e. g. corticosteroids) –Anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa

Some Symptoms of 0 steoporosis Hip fractures

Some Symptoms of 0 steoporosis Hip fractures

Some Symptoms of 0 steoporosis Vertebral fractures

Some Symptoms of 0 steoporosis Vertebral fractures

Repairing Vertebral Fractures

Repairing Vertebral Fractures

Vertebral fractures can result in kyphosis

Vertebral fractures can result in kyphosis

 • Prevention –A calcium rich diet (dairy and/or non-dairy sources) –Weight bearing exercises

• Prevention –A calcium rich diet (dairy and/or non-dairy sources) –Weight bearing exercises –Avoidance of risk factors

Intervertebral Disks

Intervertebral Disks

Intervertebral Disks

Intervertebral Disks

Intervertebral Disks

Intervertebral Disks

Herniated Disks

Herniated Disks

Herniated Disks

Herniated Disks

Herniated Disks

Herniated Disks