- Slides: 42
Site Supervisor Training UHCL Counseling Program
Faculty in the Counseling Program Dr. Dilani Perera [email protected] edu Dr. Angelica Tello [email protected] edu Dr. RJ Davis [email protected] edu Dr. Robert Pace [email protected] edu Dr. Cheryl Sawyer [email protected] edu Counseling Program Coordinator Field Experience Coordinator
Practicum Requirements • Practicum I (100 hours) – 40 direct hours* – 60 indirect hours • Practicum II and III (300 hours for each semester) – 120 direct hours* – 180 indirect hours *More than 50% of the direct hours should be individual client hours
• Direct Hours • Direct counseling (face-to-face) – Individuals, couples, or families • Facilitating or co-facilitating group sessions – Process and/or psychoeducational groups • Co-counseling with another counselor-intraining or professional counselor/school counselor – Active engagement in session not completing an observation • Intake sessions
Indirect Hours • Time spent preparing for counseling sessions • Reviewing assessments or inventories to use with clients • Completing readings pertinent to client services (books/articles on theories, treatment planning, specific disorders or populations) • Watching videos pertinent to client services (videos on theories, treatment planning, specific disorders or populations) • Writing client process notes, reports, and/or other documents • Role playing intake assessments, risk assessments, clinical interviews, terminations, etc. • Attending workshops and conference sessions
Practicum setting must meet the following requirements: • have a least one qualified professional on-site who agrees to provide direct counseling supervision to the intern; • provide the intern with a minimum of one hour of face-to-face supervision per week • provide an opportunity for the intern to perform all the activities that a regularly employed staff member in the setting would be expected to perform, subject to limitations imposed by liability considerations, setting specific policies, and confidentiality considerations; • provide the intern with direct counseling service to clients and indirect service; • provide the intern with both individual and group counseling hours, with more than 50% of those hours individual counseling;
Practicum setting must meet the following: • allow the intern to become familiar with a variety of professional activities other than direct service; • allow the intern to obtain audio tapes, videotapes or written case materials, within the bounds of preservation of client confidentiality, for use in supervision; • allow the intern to gain supervised experience in the use of a variety of professional resources such as appraisal instruments, computers, print and non-print media, professional literature and research; and • provide evaluation of the intern, both formative and summative.
Practicum supervisor must meet the following requirements: • hold an appropriate Master’s degree (such as counseling, psychology or other relevant degree) and has at least 2 years relevant experience; • hold credentials appropriate to the setting, such as Certified School Counselor, Licensed Professional Counselor, Licensed Psychologist or Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist; • provide the intern with a minimum of one hour of face-to-face supervision per week, including case consultation and formative evaluation of the intern’s work;
Practicum supervisor must meet the following requirements: • work closely with the intern to ensure that the intern has a variety of experiences which represent the activities that a regularly employed staff member in the setting is expected to perform; • communicate with the university supervisor and; • provide a summative evaluation of the intern on the form provided.
Practicum Student Agreement • Read and understood the ethical codes and standards for counseling profession – ACA Code of Ethics, ASCA Code of Ethics • Practice counseling in accordance to the ethical codes and standards for the counseling profession • Responsible to keep my practicum supervisor(s) informed regarding the practicum experiences • Meet with my site supervisor for individual supervision, face-to-face at a minimum of one hour per week • Hold counseling professional liability insurance before seeing clients at practicum site
Semester Timeframe • Our students are in practicum only in the fall or spring semester. – They can start when the semester begins and end on the official last day that the university designates. – Fall semester: August – December – Spring semester: January – May – UHCL Academic Calendar: https: //www. uhcl. edu/academics/resources/academic-calendar/ • UHCL Counseling Students are not allowed to provide direct clients services or earn hours in between semesters. • If a student contracts to be at a practicum site during a semester break, the student would be considered a volunteer, and their duties should follow that of a volunteer not counselor-in-training.
Legal and ethical issues in counseling supervision Code of Ethics: Objectives • To educate professionals about sound ethical conduct • Provide a mechanism for professional accountability • Serve as catalysts for improving practice • To safeguard the welfare of clients by providing what is in their best interest
All Codes of Ethics state that counselors must act in accordance with Federal and State Statues • Law – defines the minimum standards society will tolerate and is enforced by government • Ethics – represents the ideal standards set and is enforced by professional associations • Aspirational Ethics – refer to the highest professional standards of conduct to which counselors can aspire • Dilemma – a situation in which a counselor experiences conflict in deciding on an appropriate decision
Professional Organizations Establish Codes of Ethics �American Counseling Association �American School Counseling Association �Ethical Guidelines for Counseling Supervisors �Association of Specialist in Group Work
Changes in the 2014 ACA Code of Ethics �“The code now states the values of the counseling profession and the basic ethical principles that all counselors — not just ACA members — are expected to use to inform their practice, teaching, supervision and research. ” David Kaplan, ACA’s chief professional officer and staff liaison to the ACA Ethics Revision Task Force 15
Changes in the 2014 ACA Code of Ethics �Social media, technology, and distance counseling �Clarifying the concepts of boundaries �Personal values �Multicultural competences 16
Five Most Common Ethical Concerns �Subpoena questions/release of information � A. 1. a. , A. 2. a. , A. 4. a. , B. 1. c. , B. 1. d. , B. 2. d. and B. 2. e. �Breaking confidentiality/mandated reporting � B. 2. a. and B. 2. e. as well as A. 2. a. , B. 1. b. , B. 1. c. and B. 1. d. �Extending professional boundaries � A. 6 �Distance counseling/social media/technology � Section H �Personal values � A. 4. b. (expanded to include the necessity of obtaining training and multicultural competency as a counselor) � A. 11. a. and A. 11. b. (referrals need to be based on competency, not values) ACA Counseling Today 17
Core Ethical Issues in Supervision �Confidentiality, privacy, and privilege �Duty to warn/duty to protect and mandatory reporting �Informed consent �Boundaries and the use of power, including harassment �Dual relationships, sexual attraction and intimate or non-intimate relations �Supervisee competence �Fair evaluation and due process
STEPS IN MAKING ETHICAL DECISIONS • • Identify the problem or dilemma Identify the potential issues involved Review the relevant ethics codes Know the applicable laws and regulations Obtain consultation Consider possible and probable courses of action Enumerate the consequences of various decisions Decide on what appears to be the best course of action Corey, Corey & Callahan (2003)
Multiple Roles of Supervision �Model �Teacher �Mentor �Coach �Adviser �Consultant �Evaluator/Gatekeeper
Counseling Supervision Defined The process whereby the work of counselors is reviewed by other mental health professionals, usually with the goal of increasing the supervised counselor’s effectiveness
Theoretical Orientation �Like counseling, supervision is also driven by theoretical orientation �Psychodynamic �Person-Centered �Cognitive Behavioral �Family Therapy �Developmental Model
Developmental Supervision Works with the supervisee from where she/he is at, not where she/he should be. • Beginning Stage: Goal is to develop the relationship, assess competencies, educate and monitor – SUPERVISOR: Assumes responsibility, encourages, assesses strengths and weaknesses, reviews the supervisory contract – SUPERVISEE: Seeks and accepts direction, questions, feels anxious
Developmental Supervision • Middle Stage: Goal is to transition from dependency to independent practice with caution. – SUPERVISOR: Role-play, plays devil’s advocate, shares responsibility, creates opportunities for the supervisee to stretch – SUPERVISEE: Explores theoretical orientation, identifies treatment techniques, shares responsibility, consults with supervisor
Developmental Supervision • Ending Stage: Goal is to foster independence and prepare the supervisee for independent work. – SUPERVISOR: Reviews goals and progress, listens to and encourages supervisee, provides a summative evaluation, documents, acknowledges liability throughout the process. – SUPERVISEE: Articulates a theoretical orientation, assumes responsibility for client welfare, becomes self-supervising, reviews learning during supervision.
Supervisor’s Roles & Responsibilities �Provide training and supervised experiences that will enable supervisees to deliver ethical and effective services �Ultimately responsible, both ethically and legally, for the actions of their trainees �Should maintain records pertaining to their work with trainees �Provide ongoing feedback and periodic evaluation
Supervisor’s Roles & Responsibilities • Negotiate mutual decisions, rather than make unilateral decisions, about the needs of the trainee • Clarify the supervisory role • Meet with supervisees on a regular basis • Promote the supervisees ethical and legal knowledge and behavior • Interact with counselor trainees in a manner that facilitates their selfexploration, problem-solving ability, and confidence
Supervisor’s Roles & Responsibilities • Provide supervisees with guidance in the assessment and treatment of their clients • Recognize issues of cultural diversity • Help supervisees to recognize their limitations • Be aware of the clients being treated by the trainees
Supervisor’s Roles & Responsibilities �Teach and model ethical and professional behavior �Be familiar with the techniques being used by trainees �Be sensitive to possible cues that might indicate a client is at risk �Maintain confidentiality of clients and supervisees
Rights of Supervisees • The right to a supervisory session free from interruptions and distractions • The right to be fully informed of supervisors’ approaches to supervision • The right to confidentiality with regard to supervisee’s disclosure as well as that of clients, except as mandated by law • The right to continual access to any records maintained during the supervisory relationship
Rights of Supervisees • The right to offer feedback to supervisors concerning the helpfulness of supervision • The right to personal boundaries regarding personal information—except as it might impact the supervisee’s work with clients • The right to receive timely feedback, assessment, and evaluation from the supervisor • The right to seek consultation from other professionals as necessary
Informed Consent from Client �Clients of supervisees need to know that their counselor is working under supervision and to understand what this supervision will mean for them. �Will they be taped, videoed, or observed? �Who will be involved in supervision? �Will they be discussed in a supervision group? �What about confidentiality?
Informed Consent from Supervisee �Purposes of supervision �The logistics of supervision �Information about the supervisor �Expectations, roles, & responsibilities �Evaluation & Standards being evaluated �Ethical and legal practice
Methods of Supervision � Self-report � Process notes � Audiotapes � Videotapes � Live supervision � Client Evaluation/ Satisfaction Surveys
Ethical Practices of Counseling Supervisors • Ladany and his colleagues (1999) identified ethical guidelines for clinical supervision and conducted a study that examined ethical practices of supervisors. The results of the study indicate that 51% of the 151 [or 71] supervisees reported at least one ethical violation by their supervisors.
Results of Ethical Violations � 33% - Performance evaluation and monitoring supervisee activities � 18% - Confidentiality in supervision � 18% - Ability to work with alternative perspectives � 13% - Session boundaries and respectful treatment � 9% - Orientation to professional roles
Dual Relationships Three Types � Sexual contact � Personal counseling of the supervise by the supervisor � Social/professional relationships
Legal Aspects of Supervision �Informed consent �Confidentiality �Consultation among & between supervisors �Supervision Groups �University Internship Placements �Liability
Vicarious Liability • “Respondeat superior” (Latin term that means“let the master answer”) holds that individuals who have control and authority over others will be held accountable for the trainee’s negligence. • Tarasoff – liability for the harm that was done was extended to the professional’s supervisor
Reduce the Risk �Maintain a trusting relationship in which supervisees feel comfortable in sharing their doubts and concerns �Keep up to date with legal issues that affect supervision and mental health in general �Recognize the need for competent legal advice and ensure that an attorney is available to provide legal support �Consult with other professionals �Carry liability insurance
Document! �Meeting date and time �A listing of cases discussed �Notes regarding client progress �Recommendations made to the supervisee �Issues to be followed up in future meetings �A plan for remediating any significant supervisee deficiencies identified
Supervisors Are Professional Gatekeepers We protect the profession of counseling from: �Substandard practices �Harm to clients We enhance best practices: �Teaching our supervisees new skills �Encouraging development of innate abilities �Enhancing relational skills �Promoting hope & healing in supervisees & teaching them to do so with clients!