Sigmund Freud 1856 - 1939 • Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in the Moravian town of Pribor, Austrian Empire, which is now part of the Czech Republic. • While some of Freud's ideas have fallen out of favor and modern advances in the field of psychology have shown flaws in many of his theories, Freud's work still remains important.
Major contributions by Freud • • • Interpretation of Dreams Levels of Consciousness Personality: Id, Ego, Superego Defense Mechanisms Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development
Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory Unconscious Motivation Individuals control their sexual and aggressive urges by placing them in the unconscious Ø These take on a life of their own and become the motivated unconscious Ø
Fundamental Assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory Psychic Determinism Ø Nothing happens by chance or accident Ø Everything we do, think, say, and feel is an expression of our mind
Interpretation of Dreams • Freud was interested in dreams from boyhood • Purpose of a dream is to fulfill a wish • People’s desires and hatred of others are expressed in dreams
Repression • Refers to ideas one has had that are pushed into the unconscious so that the person is completely unaware of having the thought. • So, not remembering your dreams could be due to Repression. • We’ll come back to this later…
Levels of Consciousness Conscious - current awareness Preconscious - not aware of material but it’s retrievable (via ordinary retrieval) Unconscious - not aware of material but it’s not retrievable (via ordinary retrieval)
Issues Regarding the Unconscious • How can the existence of the unconscious be demonstrated? • Why do humans have an unconscious?
Personality and Psychoanalysis Techniques for Revealing the Unconscious Free Association Ø Dream Analysis Ø Projective Techniques Ø
The Structure of Personality ID EGO SUPEREGO
The Structure of Personality Ø Id = “das Es” Ø Most primitive, instinctual part of the mind; what we are born with Ø Source of all drives and urges Ø Operates according to the Pleasure Principle Ø Entirely unconscious
The Structure of Personality • Id, con’t. Ø Demands immediate gratification; Ø Eat, sleep, comfort, pleasure Ø Does this continue to effect us in later life?
The Structure of Personality • Ego = “I myself” (Das Ich) – Rational, decision-making component – Operates on the Reality Principle – Seeks to delay gratification of the Id’s urges until an appropriate time – Partly conscious
The Structure of Personality Ø Ego – con’t Ø The part of the mind that constrains the id to reality Ø Develops around 2 -3 years of age Ø Operates according to the Reality Principle Ø Mediates between Id, Superego, and environment
The Structure of Personality The Superego = Upholder of Values and Ideals Ø The part of the mind that internalizes the values, morals, and ideals of society Ø Develops around age 5 Ø Not bound by reality Ø “Let your conscious be your guide”
Structure of Personality Superego = “Das Uber Ich” – Operates on the Morality Principle – Seeks the perfect, ultimate, or ideal world – Strives for perfection by using guilt, shame, and doubt – Mostly unconscious
Psychodynamics • Conflict Model: – The Id and superego often want opposite results; – Individual vs. society – Restrain expression of all drives – Surplus energy results in anxiety
Psychodynamics • So…the Ego tries to mediate these conflicts • When the demands of the id or superego threaten to overwhelm the ego- anxiety results – Id – acts impulsively or destructively – Superego – acts with guilt
Psychodynamcis • Sometimes the Ego may distort reality and change the person’s view of his/her life or actions – The ego develops ways to protect or defend itself = Defense Mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms • Unconscious psychological processes designed to avoid or reduce the conscious experience of anxiety • The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality: occurs when the ego can not find an acceptable outlet for the id’s urges or when the ego fears losing control of the “war” between the id and the superego
Repression • Ideas or thoughts are pushed into the unconscious so that the person is completely unaware of having the thought. • Not remembering your dreams could be due to Repression. • Freud believed that people often tend to remember the pleasant circumstances surrounding some event , and that unpleasant memories are often repressed.
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense Repression Ø Bury anxiety to the Unconscious Ø The process of preventing unacceptable thoughts, feelings, or urges from reaching conscious awareness Ø Forgetting – is it real?
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense • Displacement Ø Shifting powerful emotions toward a substitute Ø Channel “unacceptable” impulse to non-threatening target
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense • Sublimation Ø Rechanneling unacceptable urges to socially acceptable outlets
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense • Rationalization Ø Making a plausible excuse and not acknowledging your true motives, Ø Generating acceptable reasons for outcomes that might otherwise appear socially unacceptable. Ø “Everyone does it” Ø Cheating on tests, Ø Getting alcohol tickets
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense • Denial: Parents say: “Look how adorable our child is!!!!!” Ø Not perceiving the reality of a situation Ø Unable to acknowledge the “truth” of your choices… Ø “It’s not as bad as it seems!”
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense Ø Reaction Formation Ø Act opposite of impulse Ø Behave the opposite of your true feeling
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense • Projection – Attribute your unacceptable urges on to someone else – Seeing in others those traits and desires that we find most upsetting in ourselves. EX. Lying, gossiping, homophobia, racism
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense • Regression – Retreating to immature behavior due to anxiety • Toddlers with a new baby in the family • 5 th graders going into Middle School • 8 th graders going into High School • YOU next year. . .
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense Other Defense Mechanisms Ø Isolation/Intellectualization Ø Isolate emotional reaction Ø Process abstractly
Anxiety and the Mechanisms of Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life Ø Useful in coping with unexpected or disappointing events Ø But, can make circumstances worse!
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development • Freud thought the personality was formed by age five • Each stage of development represents a different focus/conflict of the id’s pleasure seeking energy • Healthy adults resolve these conflicts successfully
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Oral Stage Ø During the 1 st year of life the infant derives pleasure through oral activities Ø Sucking, chewing, biting, exploring objects with the mouth
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Oral Stage, con’t • Fixation” or problems could lead to difficulties later on Ø Eating disorders, smoking and drinking addictions, non-stop talking, thumb-sucking, pencil biting, etc…
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Anal Stage Ø During the 2 nd year of life the toddler derives pleasure from elimination and learning control over elimination Ø Toilet training is considered important Ø Fixation occurs due to punishment or humiliation Ø Fear of rejection, “neat freak, ” anal retentive behavior, fear of needing to perfect to please someone (parents)
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Phallic Stage Ø From 3 – 6 years of age the child is interested in genitals and is curious Ø The child develops an attraction to the opposite parent
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Phallic Stage con’t Ø Oedipus complex: ØBoys feel hostility toward father figure ØDesire mother’s affection Ø Eventually identify with father
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development • Phallic Stage, con’t ØElectra complex: ØGirls feel contempt for mother figure ØDesire father’s affection Ø “Daddy’s little girl”
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Latency Stage Ø From ages 7 – 11 the child represses sexual impulses and focuses on developing same – sex friendships
Five Psycho-Sexual Stages of Development Genital Stage Ø From ages 12 to adulthood sexual urges reappear Ø Superego prevents “incestuous” urges toward opposite parent Ø Teenage thus focuses on socially acceptable substitutes Ø “Substitute “ often resembles their opposite sex parent!
Personality and Psychoanalysis The goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious Ø Identify unconscious thoughts and feelings Ø Enable the person to deal with the unconscious urges realistically and maturely Ø But how to penetrate the unconscious mind?
Personality and Psychoanalysis The Process of Psychoanalysis Ø The psychoanalyst offers the patient interpretations of the psychodynamic causes of the problems Ø The interpretations bring insight Ø Resistance may occur as a defense Ø Transference of feelings
Evaluating Freud’s Contributions Ø Proponents argue it is the first and perhaps only comprehensive theory of human nature Ø Psychoanalysis had a major impact on Western thought Critics maintain it is not contemporary Ø The nature of evidence upon which it was built can be criticized Ø Ø Emphasis on sexual drives is inappropriate
Summary Ø There are 3 main forces in the psyche that constantly interact to tame the 2 motives Ø Defense mechanisms help keep urges, thoughts, and memories that cause anxiety in the unconscious Ø Psychoanalysis is a therapy used for making the patient's unconscious