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SIGCHI Workshop - Moscow State University The Design Enterprise: Revising the HCI Education Paradigm December 2004 Anthony Faiola Associate Professor, Informatics Associate Director, Human-Computer Interaction Graduate Program Indiana University - School of Informatics (IUPUI)
HCI’s Evolutionary Path • Every discipline has its own evolutionary path from which its practitioners should reflect upon its past to better assess the future, – e. g. , the development of HCI educational programs and the preparation of future HCI practitioners. • This inquiry is important because these questions address the role that HCI professionals play in the development and deployment of technologies that will increasingly transform our daily personal and work lives.
Relationship between HCI and other fields • Academic disciplines contributing to HCI: – – – Psychology Social Sciences Computing Sciences Engineering Ergonomics Informatics Human Factors Cognitive Engineering Cognitive Ergonomics Computer Supported Co-operative Work Information Systems • Design practices contributing to HCI : – Graphic design – Artist-design – Industrial design
Advancing HCI in the New Millennium • Hollan, Hutchins, and Kirsh (2000) state that for HCI to advance in the new millennium – “we need to better understand the emerging dynamic of interaction in which the task is no longer confined to the desktop but reaches into a complex, networked world of information and computermediated interactions” (p. 19). – They argue that for people to pursue their goals in collaboration in future work environment, i. e. , in a social and material world, will require a “new theoretical basis and an integrated framework for research” (p. 19). • Dillon (2002) also asked how HCI might construct itself as an intellectual field in light of the current disparity of practice between interface designers and academic researchers. – Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human. Computer Interaction Research
Winograd’s Revelation • Winograd’s (1996) text, Bringing Design to Software shifted the focus of software development away from computing and toward design. • Norman’s (2002) recent discussion of emotion and design suggests that – “effect and emotion are not as well understood as cognition, but are both considered information processing systems, with different functions and operating parameters” (p. 38). – “The surprise is that we now have evidence that aesthetically pleasing objects enable you to work better” (p. 10). – “good design should now refer to artifacts that, “embody both beauty and usability in balance” (p. 40).
The Boundless Domain • The Shift Away from Computing-Centricity toward Human Centricity • Beyond User-Centricity—Toward the Boundless Domain – By 1990 s - gradual acceptance of the human-centered model – Shneiderman (2002)- the “second transformation of computing – a shift from machine-centered automation to user-centered services and tools, i. e. , pedagogical shift referred to as the Copernican shift • Barnard, et al (2000) argue that there is a dynamic shift away from theorizing and experimentation (pure science of cognitive psychology) and toward the “boundless domain, ” i. e. , that – “everything is in a state of flux: theory driving the research is changing, many new concepts are emerging, the domains and type of users being studied are diversifying, many of the ways of doing design are new and much of what is being designed is significantly different” (p. 221).
HCI educational course content design • HCI has become a multidisciplinary field • HCI demands a useful pedagogical framework that deals with the tensions between these fields by placing more emphasis on the strategic planning, design, and synthesis of product creation – (Faiola, 2003, 2002; Fallman, 2003; Löwgren, & Stolterman, 2004).
The Significance of Design: Knowledge Convergence, not Form Making • Design has the ability to be broadly applied within many disciplines. • Jones argues that Design is a hybrid term that includes art, science, and mathematics, …“both artists and scientists operate on the physical world as it exists in the present” (p. 10). – However, design, more than the arts or science, is a deeply embedded process of human ingenuity - to make order from chaos. • Design is the convergence of knowledge, innovation, and the hope that a concept could be realized. • Design is a process of – problem-solving that demands a protocol that is systematic and broad in scope – excavating the mind to discover patterns of knowledge that can formulate new solutions. – rearranging knowledge into restructured patterns or frames of information, De. Bono (1990)
Pedagogical strategy needed • Provide a broader integration of knowledge domains that can account for understanding design, social context, and business strategies in addition to computing. • Provide design knowledge that is: – a framework that supports and can help to merge all other knowledge domains – is instrumental for enhancing the conceptual model of future interactive products • Human-computer interaction (HCI) programs have made great strides over the last ten years, placing increasing emphasis on human-centricity and the social sciences. – However, HCI continues to need new knowledge domains that directly impact product design.
The Design Enterprise Model in HCI • The design enterprise model (DEM) outlines a methodology that is central for organizing and building design knowledge within a theoretical framework. • A pedagogical model referred to as the “design enterprise” is proposed that focuses on a three-fold integrated framework consisting of computing, social science, and business. • The model is proposed as the operation and centrality of design management.
• The human-centered model is not new, but DEM pushes the traditional HCI model further by placing more emphasis on design as knowledge management, while extending its boundaries to include: – 1) computing (interface and system design), – 2) social science (human theory and methods), and – 3) business practice (market strategizing).
In the DEM paradigm: • designers have a means of administrating the enterprise of knowledge acquisition, process integration, and product modelling within a given social context. • design becomes a knowledge tool for facilitating the coordination and execution of product development • design is not subordinate to knowledge management, as is commonly applied by knowledge management professionals • design is not a component of computing or social science practice • design is much more broadly defined as a philosophical and methodological framework • all components, processes, and operations are transferred to design as a central repository that facilitates product managers with a knowledge map.
In the DEM paradigm • the framework places humans at the center, but design establishes order, organization, and above all, direction. • human-centricity is at the core of principles and practices, but design is pivotal to the operating domains of computing, social science, and business. • the role of design is far more universal to the conceptualization, administration, and evolution of a product’s -cycle. life
Design must be demystified • HCI students must learn “good design” fundamentals • Despite a wealth of course content on computing, cognitive theory, and interface design, HCI students still lack an adequate understanding of problemsolving as an enterprise that is human-centered and design-managed. • Design as knowledge management, includes the responsibility of domain collaborators to bridge cross -disciplinary boundaries within the DEM paradigm. – Two domains that are especially important to note besides computing, are the application of the social sciences, such as ethnographic theory and practice and business strategies.
Design, Social Science, and Ethnography • Need for HCI professionals to give a considerable degree of commitment to understanding and applying social context to system design • The logical positivist model of science continues to dominate in computing research – There is, however, an increasing shift to understanding social contexts for system design (Crabtree, et al. , 1999; Hughes, et al. ; Weinberg, & Stephen, 2002). • Ethnography and other social design processes are also playing an increasing role in providing the rationale for human-centered design that supports theories in psychology and sociology.
Ethnography and System Design • As an approach derived directly from anthropology, ethnography can provide information about the context of social and organizational phenomena, as well as ways that make those technologies humancentered. • Ethnography gives system designers a way to understand a social setting as it is perceived by those involved in that setting • This makes the contextual world of the human and computer visible through a thick and detailed description of activities observed. (Geertz, 1994) – Hughes, et al. (1994) describe it as a “portrait of life. ”
Benefits of Ethnography • Ethnography enables designers to do what traditional usability methods, such as time-on-task studies, cannot. – one criticism of time-on-task testing is that it falls short of delivering relevant design information. • Observation and interview sessions collect information that allows the user to co-direct a dialogue of inquiry. In this way: – the designer and user can co-interpret and co-design by sharing ideas and solutions and an overall understanding of the design problems. – A co-invested collaboration is done through design techniques such as design ethnography, participatory design and pluralistic (cognitive) walkthroughs. • HCI students must understand the psychological and behavioural effects that transpire within the daily activities of social actions.
• By exploring the differences across various quantitative and qualitative techniques for measuring human-system interaction,
Design and Business • HCI students should learn to leverage new knowledge from a social context, while integrating existing business conditions that give tangible value to product development. • Traditional design and HCI programs rarely teach their students the relationship between design value and market value. • Donoghue (2002) suggests that usability is now linked to revenues—and profits—as never before. • Designers must educate themselves about business culture, business language, and business strategies, without becoming business professionals (Norman, 2003).
Design Education • NSF 2 -day workshop (1996): Design@2006. • Report produced: Design in the Age of Information*; topics and recommendations: – rising technological opportunities, – new design principles, – design education, and – key research issues. *Printed and distributed by the Design Research Laboratory, School of Design, North Carolina State University, July 1997; Contact Jay Tomlinson, j_tomlinson@ncsu. edu
Expanding Boundaries • If we teach HCI and interaction design, then we may subscribe to Herbert Simon's definition that "design is concerned with how things should be" (Simon, 1969). – “Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones. ” – “Design, …is the core of all professional training: it is the principal mark that distinguishes the professions from the sciences. Schools of engineering, as well as schools of architecture, business, education, law, and medicine, are all centrally concerned with the process of design. ” • The boundaries of graphic design and industrial design have drastically changed over the last ten years. – Traditional designers are involved in the development of new products and their interactions, e. g. , software and Web sites, strategic plans, wearable computers, digital libraries, gaming, database architecture, and interactive exhibitions. – The traditional disciplines of design are slowly realizing they no longer own the word “design. ” – As Simon (1969) describes, design is being practiced by engineering, computer science, information systems, professional writing, and business. Simon, Herbert A. The Sciences of the Artificial. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1969.
Converging Disciplines • If this is the case, … – who is a designer, – how should they be educated, and – what should they learn? • With a convergence of disciplines, caused primarily by technology, there are multiple partnership that must emerge between the current fields of design, technology, the humanities, and business. • Both design and computer science education should consider a further evolution in education.
Human-Environment Interaction Research Science Technology Conceptions Use Criticism Design Presentation at the IU Informatics Conference, Fall 04, Interaction Design Research, by Professor Erik Stolterman, Department of Informatics, Umeå University, Sweden
Some characteristics Science Criticism Design Explain & predict Emancipate & challenge Create & change Knowledge Meaning Competence The True The Ideal The Practical Presentation at the IU Informatics Conference, Fall 04, Interaction Design Research, by Professor Erik Stolterman, Department of Informatics, Umeå University, Sweden
Implications for research and teaching • Areas of design research and teaching: – Interaction design studies, w/ course development – Interaction critical studies, w/ course development – Interaction science studies, w/ course development • Each group has different purposes, goals, intentions, methodology, and outcome
Future of Interaction Design Research & Teaching • New patterns of interaction will come with new inventions, but usually not where we expect them. • An understanding of the digital transformation, based on critical reflections of the primary role and meaning of technology • Focus on how people experience their lifeworlds, i. e. , their organic and interactive contextual environment. • An intentional blend of science, criticism, and design approaches in research and teaching • Design will have a closer and more intimate relation to the technology
From HCI to Interaction Design • Human-computer interaction (HCI) is: – “concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them” (ACM SIGCHI, 1992, p. 6) • Interaction design (ID) is: – “the design of spaces for human communication and interaction” – Winograd (1997) • Increasingly, more application areas, more technologies and more issues to consider when designing ‘interfaces’
Relationship between ID, HCI and other fields Academic disciplines (e. g. computer science, psychology) Design practices (e. g. graphic design) Interaction Design Interdisciplinary fields (e. g HCI, CSCW)
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