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. . . . Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold Smoke

. . . . Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold Smoke Detector Testing siemens sans black siemens black italic Allen Hess – CFAA Presentation November 2011 CFAA October 2011 1

. . . . Agenda Requirements Consumer Needs Siemens sans Challenges with Industry Acceptance

. . . . Agenda Requirements Consumer Needs Siemens sans Challenges with Industry Acceptance siemens sans bold sans italic Howsiemens a Detector Works siemens sans italic bold siemensof sans. Time black Effects on detector performance siemens black italic Maintenance Best Practices Conclusion CFAA October 2011

. . . . What our Standard Prescribes Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . What our Standard Prescribes Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . What prescribes the testing and maintenance of Smoke detectors? CAN/ULC-S

. . . . What prescribes the testing and maintenance of Smoke detectors? CAN/ULC-S 536 -04 INSPECTION AND TESTING OF FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 4

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General 5. 7. 4. 1. 1 Each smoke detector shall be visually inspected for cleanliness. When required, cleaning shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Siemens sans Ensure detector can and is operating siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 5

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General 5. 7. 4. 1. 1 Each smoke detector shall be visually inspected for cleanliness. When required, cleaning shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 5. 7. 4. 1. 2 Each smoke detector shall be tested for operation by introducing smoke or simulated smoke into the detecting chamber in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black Ensure physical operability siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 6

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General 5. 7. 4. 1. 1 Each smoke detector shall be visually inspected for cleanliness. When required, cleaning shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 5. 7. 4. 1. 2 Each smoke detector shall be tested for operation by introducing smoke or simulated smoke into the detecting chamber in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Siemens sans 5. 7. 4. 1. 3 Each siemens sans bold smoke detector shall be tested to confirm that it is siemens sans italic within its rated operating range using a test method described siemens sans italic bold in Clause 5. 7. 4. 1. 6. (Refer to Appendix E 3. 1, Field Device siemens sans black Testing-Legends and Notes. ) siemens black italic Ensure calibration is within operating range and will respond as early as required CFAA October 2011 7

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General 5. 7. 4. 1. 1 Each smoke detector shall be visually inspected for cleanliness. When required, cleaning shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 5. 7. 4. 1. 2 Each smoke detector shall be tested for operation by introducing smoke or simulated smoke to the detecting Corrective Action chamber in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Siemens sans 5. 7. 4. 1. 3 Each smoke detector shall be tested to confirm that it is siemens withinsans itsbold rated operating range using a test method described siemens sans italic in Clause 5. 7. 4. 1. 6. (Refer to Appendix E 3. 1, Field Device siemens sans italic bold and Notes. ) Testing-Legends siemens sans black 5. 7. 4. 1. 4 A smoke detector whose sensitivity is not within the siemens blackoperating italic required range shall be cleaned, retested in accordance with Clause 5. 7. 4. 1. 3, and if still not within its rated sensitivity, replaced with a compatible smoke detector. (Refer to Appendix E 3. 1, Field Device Testing-Legends and Notes. ) CFAA October 2011 8

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1 General 5. 7. 4. 1. 1 Each smoke detector shall be visually inspected for cleanliness. When required, cleaning shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. 5. 7. 4. 1. 2 Each smoke detector shall be tested for operation by introducing smoke or simulated smoke into the detecting chamber in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. Provide evidence 5. 7. 4. 1. 3 Each smoke detector shall be tested to confirm that it is within Siemens sansoperating range using a test method described in Clause its rated 5. 7. 4. 1. 6. (Refer to Appendix E 3. 1, Field Device Testing-Legends and siemens sans bold Notes. ) siemens sans italic 5. 7. 4. 1. 4 A smoke detector whose sensitivity is not within the required siemens sans italic bold operating range shall be cleaned, retested in accordance with Clause siemens sans black 5. 7. 4. 1. 3, siemens black and italic if still not within its rated sensitivity, replaced with a compatible smoke detector. (Refer to Appendix E 3. 1, Field Device Testing-Legends and Notes. ) 5. 7. 4. 1. 5 Each smoke detector sensitivity measurement and if applicable, the cleaning date shall be recorded on the individual device record. (Refer to Appendix E 3. 1, Field Device Testing-Legends and Notes. ) CFAA October 2011 9

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1. 6

. . . . 5. 7. 4 Smoke Detectors 5. 7. 4. 1. 6 Acceptable methods of determining the smoke detector sensitivity are: A Manufacturer’s recommended test instrument, equipment, or method; Siemens sans B Installed control units or transponders designed to test siemens sans italic the sensitivity of individual smoke detectors; or siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black C Calibrated instruments that provide the operation as described in CAN/ULC-S 529, Standard for Smoke Detectors for Fire Alarm Systems, for the purpose of testing smoke detector sensitivity. siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 10

. . . . What Consumers Need Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans

. . . . What Consumers Need Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Role of Detection • The six fire safety subsystems recognized

. . . . Role of Detection • The six fire safety subsystems recognized in the SFPE Engineering Guide to Performance-Based Fire Protection Analysis and Design of Buildings are [2007]: – Fire initiation and development – Spread, control, and management of smoke – Fire detection Siemens sans – Fire suppression siemens sans bold – Occupant behavior and egress siemens sans italic bold – Passive fire protection siemens sans black siemens black italic Fire detection is one of the six subsystems identified in the SFPE Guide and hence is an essential component for achieving fire safety goals CFAA October 2011 12

. . . . Fire Development and Intervention Flashover Siemens sans siemens sans bold

. . . . Fire Development and Intervention Flashover Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Consumers Needs Early Warning Benefit Cost Siemens sans siemens sans

. . . . Consumers Needs Early Warning Benefit Cost Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black Detection Reliably Affordably Protect People and Valuables siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . What is this Issue? Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . What is this Issue? Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Industry Feedback/Perceptions Test tools Too many not Approved test tools

. . . . Industry Feedback/Perceptions Test tools Too many not Approved test tools Testing Impractical Siemens sans siemens sans bold Tools too expensive siemens sans italic Subjective evaluation Physical testing siemens sans italic bold of values more relevant siemens sans black siemens black italic Devices will false alarm in time CFAA October 2011 Testing Meaningless Recommendations not acted on 16

. . . . How A Detector Works Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . How A Detector Works Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Ionization Detector Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic

. . . . Ionization Detector Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 18

. . . . Ionization Detector Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic

. . . . Ionization Detector Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 19

. . . . Photo Electric Detector (Scattering) Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . Photo Electric Detector (Scattering) Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 20

. . . . Photo Electric Detector (Scattering) Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . Photo Electric Detector (Scattering) Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 21

. . . . Multi Sensor Photo Detector Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . Multi Sensor Photo Detector Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 22

. . . . Automatic Smoke Detectors Improvements in Quality and Quantity Newer Generation

. . . . Automatic Smoke Detectors Improvements in Quality and Quantity Newer Generation Mio. Pcs. 40 ASA (False Alarm Immunity) 35 Backward scattering 30 25 Siemens sans 20 siemens sans bold siemens sans italic 15 siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black 10 siemens black italic 5 0 1943 CFAA October 2011 1953 1963 1973 1983 1993 2003

. . . . ASA False Alarm Immunity # of detectors per false alarm

. . . . ASA False Alarm Immunity # of detectors per false alarm per year Neural smoke detector 3‘ 000 2'500 2'000 Siemens sans siemens sans bold Neural Wide spectrum smoke detector Field statistics Lab results 1'500 siemens sans italic bold 1'000 siemens sans black Standard siemens black italic Smoke detector 500 Standards requirements 0 System innovation CFAA October 2011 24

. . . . Effects of Time on Detector Performance Siemens sans siemens sans

. . . . Effects of Time on Detector Performance Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Environmental effects on detectors Dust, fibers, insects High-grade, patented optic

. . . . Environmental effects on detectors Dust, fibers, insects High-grade, patented optic Arrangement of grid and labyrinth Humidity protected electronic, highgrade components Extreme Temperatures Artificial aerosols and non-typical Selectable fire phenomena Siemens sans parameters and siemens sans boldmulti-criteria siemens sans italic innovative, highly integrated electronic circuitry evaluation siemens sans italic bold. Detector locking siemens sans black Construction and material selection siemens black italic Sabotage Vibration, shock Corrosive vapors CFAA October 2011 26 Electromagnetic interference

. . . . Effects of time on conventional Ionization detectors • • Ø

. . . . Effects of time on conventional Ionization detectors • • Ø Dirt builds up in chamber causing leakage Airborne dusts absorb ions decreasing current Ø Reduces detection capability Creates false alarms Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 Conclusion Without compensation or maintenance/cleaning: - most likely will experience increase in false alarms with time 27

. . . . Effects of time on conventional Photoelectric detectors • • •

. . . . Effects of time on conventional Photoelectric detectors • • • Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 Dust accumulates on transmitter/receiver reducing signal Dirt builds up on labyrinth causing reflections Airborne dusts cause reflects light Ø Ø Ø Reduces sensitivity to smoke Creates false signals Conclusion Depending on construction and environment photo detectors - may become less or more sensitive with time 28

. . . . NFPA STUDIES: “U. S. EXPERIENCE WITH SMOKE ALARMS AND OTHER

. . . . NFPA STUDIES: “U. S. EXPERIENCE WITH SMOKE ALARMS AND OTHER FIRE DETECTION/ALARM EQUIPMENT 2007” Ø“Nuisance alarms were the leading cause of disabled alarms”. Ø“Problems associated with smoke alarm age may Include: – “sensitivity drift, ” which refers to a shift in the range of visibility obscuration or siemens sans bold – particulate density that will activate the smoke alarm. Siemens sans siemens sans italic Such a shift can mean either an increase in nuisance activations (if sensitivity increases) or a siemens sans black decreased ability to react promptly to real fires (if sensitivity siemens black italic decreases)”. siemens sans italic bold CFAA October 2011 29

. . . . Maintenance Best Practices Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans

. . . . Maintenance Best Practices Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Detector Revision Process (Cleaning) Detector sensitivity after 4 years field

. . . . Detector Revision Process (Cleaning) Detector sensitivity after 4 years field exploration Detector sensitivity after revision process Production limits Siemens sans – 30% siemens 10 sans bold out of the limits # Detectors Production limits siemens sans italic bold Sensitivity [%/m] siemens sans black siemens black italic Optical components after 4 years field exploration CFAA October 2011 Sensitivity [%/m] Optical components after revision process 31

. . . . Best Practices, Global Comparison Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens

. . . . Best Practices, Global Comparison Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . International Standards Comparison Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans

. . . . International Standards Comparison Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 33

. . . . Conclusion Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold

. . . . Conclusion Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011

. . . . Conclusions • Canadian detector testing and maintenance Standards are consistent

. . . . Conclusions • Canadian detector testing and maintenance Standards are consistent with global standards. • Calibration (Sensitivity) testing continues to be important to ensure performance. • Canada is lacking in defined intervals for detector replacement • Shorter interval for replacement would reduce both the relevance and challenge of sensitivity testing Siemens sans • siemens Need sans a “Green” solution for detector replacement bold • siemens Needsans to demonstrate cost/benefit to industry and italic end consumer siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 35

. . . . Thank you for your attention! Siemens sans siemens sans bold

. . . . Thank you for your attention! Siemens sans siemens sans bold siemens sans italic bold siemens sans black siemens black italic CFAA October 2011 36