SHMD 249 21022013 Fitness A set of attributes
SHMD 249 21/02/2013
Fitness ? ? A set of attributes that people have or achieve that relate to their ability to perform physical activity.
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness – directly associated with good health. • Moderate amount of each component of health-related fitness has a direct relationship to good health and reduced risk for disease. • Body composition: prevention of obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes etc. • Flexibility: prevention of back pain and muscle injuries. • Strength: prevent back and posture problems. • Muscle endurance: promote daily living functionality. • Cardiovascular endurance: prevention of heart disease.
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness More associated with performance than with good health. People who possess these skills find it easy to achieve high levels of performance in motor skills, such as those required in sports.
Agility Balance Co-ordination SKILL-RELATED components of fitness Power Reaction Time Speed
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness • Agility: The ability to rapidly and accurately change the direction of the movement of the entire body in space. • Example: dribbling a soccer ball with your feet, dribbling a hockey ball with a hockey stick, quickly changing direction on a netball court etc. • Females slightly slower than males. • Body composition – females greater fat percentage. • Muscle mass – males stronger.
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness • Balance: The maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or while moving. • Example: gymnast on a balance beam, water skiing, jumpers in a rugby lineout etc. • Wider hips = heavier pelvic region. • Female’s center of gravity slightly lower than males. • Thus, greater balance.
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness • Reaction Time: The time elapsed between stimulation and the beginning of the reaction to that stimulation. • Quicker = better. • Slow = poor reaction time skills. • Example: starting a sprint race, catching a ball etc.
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness • Speed: The ability to perform a movement in a short period of time. Or, the rate at which the body or individual limbs can move. • Example: 40 m sprint, soccer playing sprinting to receive the ball etc. • Females slighter slower: due to body composition.
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness • Co-ordination: The ability to use the senses with the body parts to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately. • Hand-eye co-ordination: juggling, tennis, volleyball etc. • Foot-eye co-ordination: soccer, football etc.
SKILL-RELATED components of fitness • Power: is the production of strength at speed and can be seen when we throw an object or perform a sprint start. • Example: throwing a discus, shot-put, jumping is basketball etc.
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness • Body Composition: The relative percentage of muscle, fat, bone, and other tissues that comprise the body. • Athlete = relatively low body fat percentage. • High body fat = poor performance. • Women have greater fat percentage than men • Hormonal: more estrogen • Structural: wider hips (for child birth)
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness • Flexibility: Is the range of motion that a joint or group of joints can move through. It is affected by muscle length and joint structure. • Good flexibility = reduced risk of injury. • Poor flexibility = greater risk for injury. • Females have greater flexibility than males: • Due to anatomical differenceswider hips • Hormonal differences • Desired sports: dance, gymnastics, swimming
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness • Cardiovascular Fitness: It is the individuals ability to take on, transport and utilize oxygen. It is a measure of how well the lungs can take in oxygen, how well the heart and blood can transport oxygen, and then how well the muscles can use oxygen. • A fit person can sustain long periods of exercise without fatigue. • Fit athlete = good performance. • Unfit athlete = poor performance. • Females slightly lower absolute aerobic fitness: • Greater body fat percentage • Males = more testosterone
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness • Muscular Endurance: Is how well the muscles can produce repeated contractions at less than maximal (sub-maximal) intensities. • A fit person can repeat movements for a long period of time without fatigue. • Females = less testosterone = less muscle mass • Males = more testosterone = more muscle mass
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness • Strength: Is the maximum force a muscle or group of muscles can produce in a single contraction. • Greater strength = greater power. = reduced risk for injury. • Absolute vs. relative strength • Absolute strength – maximal amount of strength or force generated in a movement or exercise (i. e. 1 RM) • Relative strength – refers to absolute strength divided by body weight
HEALTH-RELATED components of fitness • A woman’s average maximum whole-body strength is ± 60% of the average man’s • Women have less testosterone, thus less muscle mass • Example: a 70 kg woman who lifts 70 kg has a relative strength equal to a 120 kg man who lifts 120 kg, even though she has less absolute strength • When performing an identical resistance training program, women generally gain strength at the same rate or faster than men