Services in digital libraries Following functions Following new

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Services in digital libraries Following functions? Following new capabilities? © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University

Services in digital libraries Following functions? Following new capabilities? © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 1

Traditionally, major library functions • COLLECTION – selection & acquisition of information resources •

Traditionally, major library functions • COLLECTION – selection & acquisition of information resources • following criteria & policies • ORGANIZATION – intellectual representation – processing – physical arrangements © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 2

major functions. . . • HOUSING COLLECTIONS • ACCESS PROVISION – locating, obtaining items

major functions. . . • HOUSING COLLECTIONS • ACCESS PROVISION – locating, obtaining items in the collection • intellectually, physically • PRESERVATION • PROFESSIONAL FUNCTIONS – e. g. subject bibliographies – major in some library models © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 3

Traditionally, major services • Mostly followed functions – access to library objects • circulation,

Traditionally, major services • Mostly followed functions – access to library objects • circulation, document delivery • interlibrary loan, • reading facilities • reserve – provision of information • reference • searching © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 4

major services. . . – dissemination • e. g. SDI – user specific services

major services. . . – dissemination • e. g. SDI – user specific services • children, adults, training. . . – subject specific services • pathways, bibliographies. . . – general • lecture series, events. . . © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 5

Issues in translation into digital libraries • What library services can be adopted into

Issues in translation into digital libraries • What library services can be adopted into a digital environment? – what main characteristics dictate services? – how to do that effectively & efficiently? © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 6

Issues in using new capabilities • What do digital environments offer that is unique?

Issues in using new capabilities • What do digital environments offer that is unique? – how to translate that into new services? – how to do that effectively & efficiently? © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 7

New characteristics of digital collections • COLLECTION: Digital objects – digitized or borne digital

New characteristics of digital collections • COLLECTION: Digital objects – digitized or borne digital – texts & other media connected – direct searching possibilities • ORGANIZATION – multiple organizations & representations possible – relationships, linking possible © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 8

characteristics. . . • HOUSING – distributed, location could be anywhere • ACCESS –

characteristics. . . • HOUSING – distributed, location could be anywhere • ACCESS – local & distributed access through network(s) © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 9

DL services • So far mostly extension from traditional services – horseless carriage model

DL services • So far mostly extension from traditional services – horseless carriage model – constrained by requirements to build digital libraries first • New services & new modes of old services just emerging • Next: examples © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 10

access to library objects • direct access in library – own or library computers

access to library objects • direct access in library – own or library computers • remote access – part open to all - most dl now publicly accessible – part restricted to own community or subscription © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 11

provision of information • • provision of search tools search of reference sources search

provision of information • • provision of search tools search of reference sources search of databases assembly of reference links – e. g. Martindale • reference – online question answering – collaborative reference • e. g. Question. Point by Lo. C © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 12

dissemination • document delivery – library sources – outside sources e. g. Uncover •

dissemination • document delivery – library sources – outside sources e. g. Uncover • electronic reserve – delivered to library – library assembled • interlibrary loan • cooperatives © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 13

user specific services • assembly of pages specific to user groups – children, teens.

user specific services • assembly of pages specific to user groups – children, teens. . . • weblinks - local, national. . . – links for specific purposes • e. g. taxes, jobs, genealogy. . . – exploring the Internet sites • Internet connection © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 14

subject specific services • made or assembled in a variety of subjects & media

subject specific services • made or assembled in a variety of subjects & media – e. g. American Memory, Perseus • area coverage – government documents (Mich), library acquisition (Berkeley), legislative (Lo. C). . . • local, regional history sources © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 15

subject. . . • subject guides, research & reference gateways – extension of pathways

subject. . . • subject guides, research & reference gateways – extension of pathways – probably a most, innovative tool • comprehensive subject coverage – NLM health information © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 16

general • training, tutorials – on & off line – instructional materials • library

general • training, tutorials – on & off line – instructional materials • library information – policies, instruction, pointers … • online exhibits • dl & other software tools – for ftp (Berkeley, ibiblio) © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 17

New DL services: Who? • Will they be developed by – librarians? – computer

New DL services: Who? • Will they be developed by – librarians? – computer scientists? – commercial outfits? – user groups? • All are now in the play • Need cooperation among various groups © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 18

Commercial library services • Given subjects, areas – Bartleby - verse – Alibris -

Commercial library services • Given subjects, areas – Bartleby - verse – Alibris - booksellers, collectors – Academic. Info - education – Web Developers Virtual Library • Reference – Ask Jeeves & many others © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 19

Conclusions • DL services provide for – great challenges, but also – great opportunities

Conclusions • DL services provide for – great challenges, but also – great opportunities to innovate • Exploit characteristics of digital world for services – but link to user needs and characteristics • Economics play a critical role – $$$$$$ vs. possible services © Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 20

© Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 21

© Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University 21