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Serv. Safe Chapter 10 Sanitary Facilities and Equipment
GOALS TO FOCUS ON: z. Designing a Sanitary Establishment z. Considerations for Other Areas of the Facility z. Sanitation Standards for Equipment z. Choosing and Installing Kitchen Equipment z. Utilities
OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter, you should be able to: z. Respond to an interruption in the internal water supply. z. Respond to wastewater overflows. z. Identify methods to prevent backflow problems. z. Identify potable water sources.
z. Identify uses of nonpotable water. z. Handle waste properly. z. Clean and maintain restrooms properly. z. Identify the requirements of a handwashing station. z. Position equipment and facilities to make sanitation easier.
Key Terms z ADA z Porosity z Resiliency z Acrylic wood z Coving z Food-contact surface z Service sink z NSF International z UL (Underwriters Laboratories) z Detergent z Sanitizer z Blast chiller z Tumble chiller z Cantilever mounted z Potable water z Booster heater z Cross-connection z Backflow z Single-use item z Vacuum breaker z Foot-candle z Flood rim z Air gap z Environmental Protection Agency z Solid waste z Garbage z Pulper
Designing a Sanitary Establishment Four topics related to the sanitary layout and design of equipment and facilities. z. Materials for walls, floors and ceilings that will make cleaning these surfaces easier. z. Arrangement and design of equipment and fixtures to comply with sanitation standards. z. Design of utilities to prevent contamination and to make cleaning easier. z. Proper solid waste management to avoid contaminating food and attracting pest.
The Plan Review A sanitary foodservice layout and design should begin in the planning stage of the facility. Some local jurisdictions will require the approval of design plans by building and zoning departments. In addition, the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) requires reasonable accommodation for access to the building by both patrons and employees with disabilities. Even if local laws do not require it, a manager should have plans reviewed by the local regulatory agency.
Materials for Interior Construction Materials used in the construction of a facility must be selected with several factors in mind. Materials chosen should: z. Create an attractive facility z. Contribute to workplace safety z. Be reasonably priced z. Be easy to clean and maintain (Most important)
Have a mixture of floor, wall, and ceiling surfaces that: z. Are sound absorbent z. Resist absorption of grease and moisture z. Have light-reflective surfaces
Flooring materials in the kitchen and service areas should meet requirements for health and safety, strength and durability, and appearance. Porosity is the extent to which a floor covering can become saturated by liquids. Floor surfaces should be: z Easy to maintain z Wear resistant z Slip resistant z Nonporous
Nonporous Resilient Flooring In most areas of the establishment, nonporous resilient flooring is the best choice. Resiliency means a material has the ability to react to a shock without breaking or cracking. Resilient Flooring z. Rubber Tile z. Vinyl Sheet z. Vinyl Tile Exhibit 10 a
Hard-Surface Flooring The second major type of flooring commonly used in an establishment is hard-surface flooring and includes: zquarry tile zceramic tile zbrick zterrazzo; marble zwood zacrylic wood (plastic absorbed into zwood) Exhibit 10 b
Special Flooring Needs Each area of an establishment has its own particular flooring needs. z. Non-slip surfaces z. Rubber mats z. Coving is a curved, sealed edge placed between the floor and the wall to eliminate sharp corners or gaps that would be impossible to clean.
Finishes for Interior Walls and Ceiling Criteria when choosing interior finishes are: z Ease of cleaning and porosity Most important z Light in color Common wall finishes: z Ceramic tile z Stainless steel Common Ceiling materials: z Acoustic tile z Painted drywall z Painted plaster z Exposed concrete
Considerations for Other Areas of the Facility Dry Storage Dry storerooms should be constructed of easy-to-clean materials that allow good air circulation. Shelves, table tops, and bins for dry ingredients should be made of corrosionresistant metals or food-grade plastics. Exhibit 10 d
Restrooms and Handwashing Stations Restrooms should be: z. Away from food preparation areas z. Convenient z. Clean and Sanitary z. Fully-equipped handwashing station z. Self-closing doors z. Stocked with toilet paper z. Trash receptacles z. Covered waste containers
Handwashing Station Handwashing stations must be conveniently located so that employees will be encouraged to wash their hands often. Must be equipped with the following items: z. Hot and cold running water. Water temperature of at least 110 degrees F. z. Soap. z. A means to dry hands. z. A waste container.
Sinks Each sink is an establishment must be used for its intended purpose only. Service sinks used for cleaning mops and disposing of waste water must be kept separate. At least one service sink or curbed drain area to dispose of soiled water is required in an establishment. Dressing Rooms and Lockers Are not required, but are nice. Used only for dressing and separate from the kitchen.
Premises Walkways and the parking lot should be kept free of litter and graded so standing pools of water do not form. Patron traffic through the food preparation area is prohibited. Although guided tours are allowed.
Sanitation Standards for Equipment The task of choosing equipment designed for sanitation has been simplified by organizations such as NSF International, formerly the National Sanitation Foundation. NSF International develops and publishes standards for sanitary equipment design. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) also provides sanitation classification listings for equipment found in compliance with NSF International standards. Mark for equipment that meets safety standards.
NSF International Standards It is the responsibility of the manufacturer to know safety standards for specific equipment. NSF International bases its standards on: z. Equipment must be easy to clean. z. All food-contact surfaces must be smooth, nontoxic, nonaborbent, corrosion resistant, and stable and must not cause changes in the color, odor, or taste of the food.
z. Internal corners and edges exposed to food must be rounded off (coved). z. All food-contact surfaces must be smooth and free of pits, crevices, ledges, inside threads and shoulders, bolts, and rivet heads. z. Coating materials must be nontoxic and cleanable and must resist cracking and chipping. z. Equipment must be easy to disassemble to encourage frequent, thorough cleaning.
Warewashing Machines: Warewashing machines vary widely by size, style, and method of sanitizing. z. Hot water machines sanitize with extremely hot water z. Chemical sanitizing machines use a chemical solution
Warewashing machines include the following models: z. Single-tank, stationary-rack, with doors. z. Conveyor machine. z. Carousel or circular conveyor machine. z. Flight-type. z. Batch-type, dump. z. Recirculating, door-type, non-dump. z. Conveyor
Clean-in-Place Equipment Some equipment, such as certain automatic ice-making machines and soft-serve ice cream and frozen yogurt dispensers, is designed to be cleaned by having a detergent solution, hot-water rinse, and sanitizing solution passed through it. Clean-in-Place equipment must be selfdraining.
Refrigerators and Freezers z. Walk-In Refrigerator z. Reach-in Freezer z. Blast Chiller many can cool foods from 140 degrees F to 37 degrees F within 90 minutes z. Tumble Chiller Unit
Cutting Boards Synthetic cutting boards are generally preferred because they can be cleaned and sanitized in a warewashing machine. Separate cutting boards should be used for raw and cooked foods.
Choosing and Installing Kitchen Equipment A well-designed kitchen make the job of keeping food safe easier. Generally, an efficient kitchen design is a more sanitary kitchen design. Layout A well-designed kitchen will address the following factors. z. The work flow z. Contamination z. Equipment accessibility
Equipment The primary criteria for installing equipment are ease of cleaning and elimination of hiding places for pests. Floor-Mounted Immobile Equipment Immobile equipment must be mounted on legs at least six inches off the floor or sealed to a masonry base. Cantilever Mounted Cantilever mounting allows free access for cleaning underneath and behind large equipment.
Utilities Establishments could not operate without water and plumbing, electricity and gas, lighting, ventilation, sewage, and waste handling. Water Supply Potable Water that is safe to drink. Potable sources of water include approved public water mains, private water sources that are regularly maintained and tested, and bottled drinking water.
Potable Water is needed for: z. Water Emergencies z. Beverage or ingredient z. Ice z. Cleaning z. Handwashing z. Restrooms, Showers, and Laundry Hot Water Booster heater can maintain a water temperature of 180 degree F for heat sanitizing tableware and utensils.
Plumbing Only licensed plumbers should install and maintain plumbing systems in an establishment. Cross-connections a physical link through which contaminants from drains, sewers, or waste water can enter a potable water supply. Flood rim is the spillover point on a sink.
Vacuum breaker the threaded faucets and connections between two piping systems must have a vacuum breaker or other approved backflow prevention device. Air gap is to prevent backflow in a sink. Air gaps between the faucet and the flood rim and between the drainpipe and floor drain of a sink prevent backflow.
Grease Condensation and Leaking Pipes Grease traps are often installed to prevent a buildup of grease from creating a drain blockage. Sewage Sufficient drainage must be provided to handle waste water. A backup of raw sewage on the floor is a cause for immediate closure of the establishment, correction of the problem, and through cleaning.
Lighting Building and health codes usually set minimum acceptable levels of lighting, typically based on Foot-candles. A foot-candle is a unit of illumination one foot from a uniform source of light. Here are some recommendations. z Provide a minimum of fifty foot-candles of light (540 lux) in food prep areas. z Provide a minimum of twenty foot-candles of light (220 lux) in handwashing or warewashing areas; at buffets and salad bars. z Provide a minimum of ten foot-candles of light (110 lux) inside walk-in refrigerator and freezer units, in dry storage areas, and in the dining room during cleaning.
Ventilation Proper ventilation helps maintain an establishment’s indoor air quality by removing steam, smoke, grease and heat from the establishment. Mechanical ventilation must be used in areas for cooking, frying, and grilling. Exhaust hoods are used over cooking equipment, steam tables, and warewashing machines. Ventilation must be designed so that hoods, fans, guards, and ductwork do not drip onto food or equipment.
Solid Waste Management The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) a government agency that sets standards for environmental quality, to include air and water quality, and regulates the use of pesticides and the handling of wastes. EPA has recommended three approaches to manage solid waste dry bulky trash that can be recycled, including glass, plastic, paper, and cardboard.
Three approaches to manage solid waste: z. Reduce the amount of waste produced. z. Reuse when possible. z. Recycle materials Garbage Disposal Garbage is wet waste matter, usually containing food, that cannot be recycled. Garbage containers must be leak-proof, waterproof, pest-proof, easily cleanable, and durable.
Outdoor Trash Receptacles Should be located on or above smooth surface of nonabsorbent material such as concrete or machine-laid asphalt. Pulpers grind food and other types of waste (such as paper) into small parts that are flushed with water. The water is then removed so that the processed solid wastes weigh less and are more compact for easier disposal.